Fogo Cruzado: Crossfire House Rules for the Portuguese Colonial War

Fogo Cruzado is my variant of Crossfire for the Portuguese Colonial War of the 1960s and 1970s. It derives from my general thoughts on Wargaming Rules for the Portuguese Colonial War. All my Crossfire House Rules apply. These house rules are specific to Fogo Cruzado.

Table of Contents

  1. Figure to Man Ratio
  2. Types of Stands
  3. Other Troop Characteristics
  4. Orders of Battle
  5. African Terrain
  6. Fieldcraft, Concealment and Tracking
  7. Transport

Figure to Man Ratio

Fogo Cruzado is more or less 1:1 scale, i.e. one figure represents one man. This is because:

  • All belligerents basically used a reinforced platoon as their basic operational unit, although this was more commonly called a combat group or bi-grupo or just group.
  • Troops such as the Portuguese Commandos and Paratroopers were organised into small teams of five and it makes sense to have this as a smallest tactical unit, i.e. equivalent to the squad in standard Crossfire.

Types of Stands

The implication of more or less 1:1 scale is that a basic stand represents a fire team of 3-6 men rather than a squad of 9-12. The types of stand reflect the range of weapons in use during the Portuguese Colonial War.

The most common types of stands are:


Small Arms Teams

Small arms include rifles and sub-machine guns (SMG). The bulk of of small arms teams will be equipped with rifles of one type or another. Rifle Teams are treated like a normal Crossfire Rifle Squad regardless of the particular composition and equipment. There is little to distinguish the various types of team these under the rules. Examples of Rifle Teams are:

The final type of small arms team is the Scout (or Sentry).

Bolt Action Rifle Team

Less well equipped troops had WW2 vintage bolt action rifles. They are treated like a normal Crossfire Rifle Squad however many will suffer from the Untrained special rule. But not all will be Untrained, for example, UNITA were generally poorly equipped but were considered good fighters.

Assault/Battle Rifle Team

Assault rifles are the default infantry weapon in this period. The AK47 Assault Rifle was the most common weapon amongst the insurgents. The Portuguese uses a heavier calibre weapon, the G3 Battle Rifle.

Assault/Battle Rifle and LMG Team

The Portuguese had the Dreyse MG13, M42-59, and Madsen as the section support weapon. The Portuguese combined a LMG with Battle Rifles in small fire teams, for example, a fire team might comprise a MG42-59 gunner and four guys with G3 rifles. These teams did not break down further. The insurgents also combined their LMG with assault rifles; often the weapons were Soviet in origin.

Assault Rifle and RPG Team

The insurgents often used their RPG teams as a team support weapon for anti-personnel fire (like a LMG). Same applies for insurgents with Bazookas. They are treated like a normal Crossfire Rifle Squad however will benefit from anti-tank capability as well.

SMG Team

Some Insurgents were equipped with WW2 era sub-machine guns. SMG Teams are treated like a normal Crossfire SMG Squads.

Scout (or Sentry) Team

Scout and Sentry Teams are a new troop type for Fogo Cruzado. They represent one or two men with a specific role and are on a small base. These small teams shoot with 2d6 into the open / 1d6 into cover. They can only initiate close combat with another Scout or Sentry and fight in close combat with a -2 modifier. Scouts are likely to have Tracker ability.


Heavy Weapons Team

Heavy weapons in Fogo Cruzado are treated the same as in normal Crossfire, e.g. arc of fire and penalty in close combat.

There are four types of heavy weapons teams common in Africa:

Bazooka Team

Both sides used man carried rocket launchers including Bazookas and RPGs, however, the Portuguese kept their rocket launchers in separate teams reporting to the platoon (combat group) commander. The Portuguese used their rocket launchers when the target was in cover, e.g. in a bunker, entrenchment, building, or just behind an ant hill. A Bazooka Team represents one of these Portuguese stands, regardless of the specific weapon utilised.

In the game a Bazooka Team represents a guy with the weapon plus another guy who is the loader and/or ammunition carrier. A Bazooka Team:

  • Must be attached to an infantry platoon (combat group) for the duration of the game.
  • Is treated as a part of that platoon for movement purposes.
  • Must be attached (within 1 base width) of rifle team from the platoon at all times.
  • Counts as a heavy weapon in melee

A Bazooka Team may fire in one of two ways:

  • The stand may augment the fire of a Rifle Team it is attached to by adding one fire dice to the total number of dice thrown when engaging targets in cover. For example, a Rifle Team throws 2d6 at a target in cover but this becomes 3d6 with an attached Bazooka Team.
  • The stand may fire in the anti-armour role using the normal anti-tank fire rules.

MMG Team

The Portuguese had medium machine guns, typically the MG42 or MG42-59 on a tripod and equipped for sustained fire at the company and battalion level. I”m sure the Insurgents could field something similar. MMG Teams are treated like a normal Crossfire HMG stand.

HMG Team

All parties had access to heavy machine guns. They are treated like a normal Crossfire .50 Cal machine gun, i.e. like a HMG stand but with light anti-armour capability.

Recoilless Rifle Team

Both sides used Recoilless Rifles. They were, for example, part of the official Portuguese order of battle. However their use was limited by the difficulty of transport. The Portuguese mounted some on trucks so they might appear in a convoy. They might also appear in attack or defence of a base.

They are a direct fire gun with both HE and anti-tank capability. The stands are heavy weapons.

Mortar Team

Mortars were common in Africa. I have my light mortars (50-60mm) on-table and treat them as Forward Observers (FO) in Crossfire. I count any heavier on-table mortars as heavy weapons stands.


Civilian stands

The division between insurgents and civilians is often blurred. From my perspective a guy with a gun is an insurgent. There are three other category of stand that appear in Fogo Cruzado:

Bow Gang

A stand armed with bows and arrows shoots with 2d6 at targets in the open and 1d6 into cover. They close combat at -2 even if armed with spears and/or machetes.

Machete Gang

A stand solely armed with spears and/or machetes (pangas; the Portuguese called them catanas – a loan word from Japanese) cannot shoot but conducts close combat normally.

They are often Reckless.

Unarmed Civilians

Unarmed civilians are a feature of battlefields in guerrilla wars. Unarmed civilians will behave semi-randomly and may mill about (do nothing), shield friendly forces, flee towards friendly forces, or just run about hysterically.

The umpire or insurgent player controls all unarmed civilians. Unarmed civilians act before all armed insurgents. They are destroyed automatically in close combat and cannot shoot but are shot at normally. Failure of actions by unarmed civilians does not cause initiative to pass. An unarmed civilian stand will act if there is shooting in the vicinity and/or if they have line of sight to an enemy stand.

For each unarmed civilian stand roll 1d6 to determine their intention this initiative:

1d6 Unarmed Civilian Intention
1 Mill about (do nothing)
2 Mill about (do nothing)
3 Move towards nearest cover or next nearest if already in cover
4 Move towards enemy and away from friends
5 Move away from both enemy and friends
6 Move towards friends and away from enemy
7 Move towards friends and away from enemy

Modifier: +1 if shooting in vicinity

Shooting in the vicinity means any of the following applies to the stand when they roll their action die. The stand:

  • was shot at during the just finished enemy initiative or the preceding friendly initiative.
  • has line of sight to a stand that shot during the just finished enemy initiative or the preceding friendly initiative.
  • has line of sight to a stand that was shot at during the previous enemy initiative or the preceding friendly initiative.

A unarmed civilian stand must make a move action if their intention for the initiative is to “Move”. A stand must attempt two move actions if there is shooting in the vicinity otherwise one.


Command Stands

There are three types of command stand in Fogo Cruzado:

The distinction between Commanders and Command Teams is merely the number of men the stand represents not in any responsibilities. Both can have direct control of other stands. Command Teams fight better and, because they include a radioman, can call in off table assets.

A command stand that has direct control of combat stands can direct group fires by those stands. This is comparable to a platoon crossfire directed by a PC and a HMG crossfire directed by a company commander.

Both Commanders and Command Teams can also have subordinate Command Stands of either type.

A Political Commissar is a Commander with special characteristics.

Commander

A Commander represents the man himself and possibly one other. Aside from the fact they might command anything from a section to a battalion sized group they are treated like a standard Crossfire Platoon Commander. That means they are:

  • Based like a PC, e.g. 1 figure on a base
  • Cannot close combat except by supporting other teams
  • Cannot shoot

Command Team

A Command Team represents 4 or 5 men including the commander, radioman, medic, runners, etc. Aside from the fact they might command anything from a section to a battalion sized group they are treated like a standard Crossfire Company Commander. They are

  • Based like a CC, e.g. multiple figures on a base
  • Can close combat without other teams being present
  • Can shoot like a Rifle Team in Ambush fire but cannot shoot in other circumstances it is assumed to be doing “command” stuff
  • Adds a +1 when rallying a stand; this reflects the fact the command team has a medic and riflemen to add to subordinate team to bring them up to strength.
  • Can act as an FO for any indirect fire or air assets (because the team includes a radioman)

Political Commissars

A Commissar is a commander with special abilities. The Commissar provides a +2 modifier in all close combats in which it is involved and provides +3 rally modifier when helping any Communist stands to rally. However, if a 1 is rolled during a rally attempt by a Commissar the failing stand’s state becomes one step worse, i.e. a pinned stand becomes suppressed and a suppressed stand becomes killed.


Other Troop Characteristics

Aside from the stand type and morale there are several other characteristics to describe troops in the Portuguese Colonial War:

Untrained aka Armed Civilians

Armed civilians lack military training so often do the wrong thing in combat. The effects are:

  • They cannot ground hug as the individuals have a tendency to run away when shot at
  • They cannot conduct a crossfire (although they can do a fire group)
  • They must reactive fire if they have the option as they lack fire discipline. They player can choose for another stand or stands to take the reactive shot but somebody is going to shoot if an armed civilian could.

Armed civilians are also likely to be Green troops and suffer that consequences of that as well.

Timid – won’t initiate close combat

Some armed civilians are so unenthusiastic that they won’t initiate close combat.

Reckless: Machismo and Magic

Some government troops liked to close with the enemy, e.g. Fletchas and Portuguese conscripts, and are classified as Reckless.

Many insurgents were animists and some, particularly the poorly armed types from early in the war, believed they were magically protected from Portuguese bullets. These troops also count as Reckless.

Looter

Poor quality troops were inclined to looting. All troops with Looter characteristic must be declared at the beginning of the game as the enemy player can tempt them.

A Looter stand is tempted only if the stand is:

  • trying to take a Move action and
  • in or near1 a lootable terrain feature2 and
  • outside line of sight to enemy

Notes:
(1) “Near” means the stand could move into a lootable terrain feature with a single move action.
(2) All “Lootable terrain features” must be defined as part of the scenario. An obvious example is a European house, shop, broken down truck, etc.

Use a Temptation roll to determine if a Looter stand succumbs to the temptation of loot. This works in a similar fashion to Reactive Fire. The enemy player announces a Temptation roll. This is a 4d6 attack with a 5 or 6 on a die being a “hit”. If there are no hit the Move action continues unaffected by temptation.

If there is at least one hit and the Looter stand is already within a lootable terrain feature the men in the stand will immediately disperse to loot. The original Move action is aborted without any movement and the stand then takes a PIN, SUPPRESS, or KILLED result depending on the number of Temptation hits.

Temptation is a bit more complicated if the Looter stand is “near”, not already “in”, a lootable terrain feature. Make the Temptation roll as above and if there is at least “hit” the the Looter stand will:

  1. immediately makes a Move action into the nearest lootable terrain feature. This move is subject to normal reactive fire and might result in close combat
  2. disperses to loot (as above) once inside the lootable terrain feature

Recovery from Looter temptation requires a normal Rally action. However, the stand is then potentially subject to a subsequent Temptation roll.

While the stand is near the lootable feature the player must make a “resist looting” roll – identical to a rally from pin – every time the stand takes a move action that isn’t into the building. Success means the move action happens normally. Failure means the stand moves into the lootable terrain instead of the intended action.

When a looting inclined stand enters a lootable terrain feature for any reason it immediately becomes pinned representing the men dispersing to loot. They rally in the normal way.

(Technologically) Uneducated

African troops were often poorly educated given the sophisticated technology they had available. In such situations:

  • -1 to the roll for Indirect Fire Smoke and Direct Fire ACC
  • -1d6 for Indirect Fire Barrage and Direct Fire HE

Tracker

See fieldcraft ability.

Dragoon: Horse Mounted Troops

The Portuguese fielded “Dragoons”, i.e. men on horses. These guys had a certain attitude that the rules have to reflect: they tended to charge with guns blazing. What is interesting is that this tactic was effective against the insurgents who tended to panic and run.

The special rules are:

  • Can fight mounted or dismounted.
  • Dismounted they are treated as infantry in all ways.
  • When mounted these rules apply:
    • Require a successful Rally from Pin roll to dismount – and remember the +1 for being out of sight of enemy; failure means loss of initiative. Once dismounted, they cannot remount during the game.
    • Can’t enter/attack buildings or fortifications, or cross barbed wire, and may not ground hug or use trenches.
    • Shoot with 2d6 regardless of cover
    • Are Reckless Troops, i.e. if moving to close combat Ignore “pin” but “suppress” = “kill”.
    • +2 in close combat

Orders of Battle

See the Orders of Battle page.


African Terrain

All the Terrain Types from Crossfire and Hit the Dirt are applicable.

Four features of the African Terrain need elaboration:

“Long Grass” / “Elephant Grass” Terrain Feature

There is one new terrain type = Long Grass also called Elephant Grass. Treat as an in season field.

Rice Paddy

Guinea-Bissau, but not other theatres, has rice paddies. A rice paddy feature is made up of the paddy field and the surrounding raised dyke. The paddy field counts as a field feature which can be “Dry”, i.e. an out of season field, or “Wet”, i.e. and in-season field. The raised dyke is treated as a series of wall features.

Feature Shape Indirect Cover Direct Cover Block LOS
Wet Rice Paddy Field Area No Yes Yes
Dry Rice Paddy Field Area No Yes No
Raised Rice Paddy Dyke Linear Yes Yes No

Wheeled vehicles are not permitted to cross Raised Rice Paddy Dykes or enter Wet Rice Paddy Fields. Tracked vehicles may do so but must test for bogging down each time they move or pivot.

Very Dense Jungle

Several theatres had very dense jungle. This is not a new type of feature as it is simply represented by lots of woods features close together, just like a dense wood.


Open, Moderate and Dense Woods or Jungle

Mines – lots of them – and mine detection / clearing

?? TODO ??

A Portuguese Rifle Team equipped with Pica counts as an engineer stand for detecting and removing mines.


Fieldcraft, Concealment and Tracking

Fogo Cruzado introduces fieldcraft to Crossfire including extended concealment rules and tracking.

Five new sneaky actions are available: “Sneak”, “Hide”, “Conceal Trail”, “Track” and “Reorganise”.

New fieldcraft, concealment and tracking rules bring two new types of marker:

  • Sneaker markers (abbreviated to Sneakers) represent sneaking troops. I originally called Sneakers Ghosts but wanted to align the name of the marker with the visibility/concealment mode.
  • Spoor markers (abbreviated to Spoor) represent signs that enemy troops have passed by and are used in tracking.

Sneakers

At any point in time a stand will be in one of three visibility/concealment modes: hidden, sneaking, and revealed. Standard Crossfire has just hidden and revealed (although it isn’t called that). Sneaking is new and enables hidden movement. Usually units will start the game hidden or sneaking and become revealed during the game. But it is also possible for a revealed stand to start sneaking and subsequently hide. The three visibility/concealment modes are represented on the table using troop stands (or not) or Sneakers.

All of this is summarised in the following table:

Visibility/Concealment Mode Represented on table by Becomes Hidden when Becomes Sneaking when Becomes Revealed when
Hidden Nothing as it is hidden deployment Sneak Action All the normal rules for revealing hidden stands apply
Sneaking Sneaker Hide Action See Sneaking to Revealed rule
Revealed Troop stands Sneak Action then Hide Action Sneak Action

A Sneaker might represent:

  • no stands (a dummy Sneaker),
  • a single stand,
  • several stands that all report to the same command stand even though the command stand isn’t present, or
  • a command stand with some or all of its subordinate stands (up to a full combat group).

Each Sneaker should have an ID of some kind so you know which Sneaker represents what troops. A Sneaker available at Deployment is assigned troops before the game starts; a Sneaker created during the game is allocated troops when the Sneaker appears on table.

Real Sneakers represent real troops. Each Real Sneaker can include:

  • Up to a combat group (platoon) of stands all of which are subordinate to the same command stand
  • At most one command stand

Real Sneakers can conduct Move, Hide, Conceal Trail Rally from pin, call in Indirect Fire (if they contain an FO or command team), and RBF actions, but nothing else. All troops represented by a particular real Sneaker act in concert until revealed. Effectively this means they group move and group RBF whilst represented by the Sneaker. A real Sneaker RBFs with 2d6 regardless of the number and type of stands it represents. Stands must be revealed to fire, close combat or any other action not explicitly mentioned above.

In addition to Sneakers representing real stands there are also Dummy Sneakers that do not. Dummy sneakers can be explained as plausible enemy positions, the rumour of enemy, civilians in the combat zone animals, or just unexplained noises in the bush. Dummy Sneakers can conduct Move, Conceal Trail and Rally from pin actions but nothing else.

A pinned Sneaker – whether real or dummy – cannot move. Pinned Sneakers rally on a 4+ but get no modifiers to the roll.

How many Sneakers can you have at the start of the game

By default, at the the start of the game, a side gets two allocated Sneakers for each combat group. An additional Sneaker is allocated for a Company Commander. Finally bonus Sneakers are awarded depending on the ability of the historical troops to conceal their movement.

Number of Sneakers given Number of Combat Groups

Troop Type 1 Combat Group 2 Combat Groups 3 Combat Groups + Company Commander Bonus sneaker allocation
Portuguese: Cazadores, Special Groups, etc 2 5 8 1 per 4 allocated
Angolan Insurgents (MPLA, UPA/FNLA/GRAE, UNITA) 2 5 9 1 per 3 allocated
Elite Portuguese: Fletchas, Commandoes, Paratroopers, Marines 3 6 10 1 per 2 allocated
PAIGC 3 6 10 1 per 2 allocated
FRELIMO 3 6 10 1 per 2 allocated

Examples:

  • A Portuguese Cazadore combat group gets two allocated Sneakers at the start of the game but no bonus Sneakers. Two Cazadore combat groups would have to be present to get a bonus Sneaker making five Sneakers in total.
  • In contrast a Fletcha combat group would get three Sneakers at the start of the game – two allocated and one bonus.

Further Sneakers, in addition to those allocated at the start of the game, can be generated during the game as a result of applying Fieldcraft – see “Sneak” and “Conceal Trail” actions.

Sneaking to Revealed: How Sneakers are revealed

Sneakers are revealed when any of the following happens:

  • The enemy succeeds with RBF against the terrain feature the Sneaker occupies.
  • The enemy scores a suppress or higher on the Sneaker. This can be either phasing or reactive fire.
  • When the owning player chooses, for example, when the player wants the troops to fire.
  • As a result of a successful enemy Tracking roll.

Revealing a Sneaker is not an action and does not attract reactive fire itself, although a moving Sneaker can draw reactive fire. Dummy Sneakers are removed by being revealed.

If a Sneaker representing real stands is revealed in a terrain feature: all the stands it represents are placed in the terrain feature and the Sneaker is removed.

If a Sneaker representing real stands is revealed in the open: A single real stand replaces the Sneaker marker on table. The Sneaker marker is then removed from the table. All other stands are then placed one by one, each must be within one stand width of a previously revealed stand from that Sneaker marker.

Sneaky Actions

Five new actions are available: “Sneak”, “Hide”, “Conceal Trail”, “Track” and “Reorganise”. All are based on a Fieldcraft roll.

“Sneak” Action: When a stand/unit wants to start sneaking

“Sneak” is an action available to hidden and revealed troops. A revealed or hidden on-table “unit” can change to sneaking (i.e. a Sneaker) when all of the these apply:

  • The “unit” comprises a group of stands that can be a Sneaker, e.g. a command stand and his combat group, etc.
  • All stands in the “unit” are outside line of sight to enemy (whether revealed or sneakers)
  • The stands are deployed in a formation that would be legal when a Sneaker is revealed, e.g. in the same terrain feature.
  • It is is stationary for the entire initiative – pretty easy if the unit is already hidden
  • It scores a success on a fieldcraft roll; this is automatically successful for a player that has enough unallocated Sneakers from the beginning of the game

If the fieldcraft roll is successful the “unit” is replaced by one to three markers. The markers are placed on the location of one of the stands. The markers are:

  • Sneakers: A hidden unit that successfully sneaks gets a single Sneaker; the player chooses if this is Real (i.e. includes troops) or a Dummy. A revealed unit that successfully sneaks is replaced by two sneakers – one dummy Sneaker and one Real Sneaker (i.e. with the troops).
  • Spoor: If the fieldcraft roll succeeded with only one Hit then a Spoor marker is also placed.

If the fieldcraft roll is unsuccessful then a Spoor marker is placed in the location of the unit and initiative passes.

Note: Hidden troops do not use Sneakers until they move. This means a defending Sneaker will only appear when some troops move or when the player wants the enemy to think some troops are moving which results in a dummy Sneaker moving.

Note: The “Sneak” action is used to start sneaking. After that the Sneaker uses normal actions.

“Hide” Action: When a sneaking stand/unit wants to hide

Real Sneakers can attempt a “Hide” action. A sneaking unit (i.e. real Sneaker) can go to hidden when all of these apply:

  • The Sneaker is within a terrain feature that allows troops to deploy hidden
  • The Sneaker is outside line of sight of enemy (whether revealed or sneakers)
  • The Sneaker remains stationary for the entire friendly initiative
  • It scores a success on a fieldcraft roll

Upon a successful fieldcraft roll the player with the Sneaker:

  • Leaves the Sneaker marker on table; it can move away in the next friendly initiative
  • Place a spoor marker next to the Sneaker if the fieldcraft roll got only one hit
  • Secretly decides, and notes, whether or not to the leave the troops hidden at the location of the Spoor or keep them with the Sneaker

Failure on the fieldcraft roll means initiative passes.

“Conceal Trail” Action

A player can attempt to conceal the trail of a Sneaker using the fieldcraft ability. On a successful fieldcraft roll for a Sneaker the player adds a second Sneaker. The player decides which troops from the original Sneaker are assigned to each of the Sneakers, in any combination. If the fieldcraft roll got only one hit then place a Spoor next to the original Sneaker.

A Conceal Trail action can also be used to remove a friendly Spoor marker. The stand or Sneaker attempting to remove the spoor must make a successful fieldcraft roll.

With either variation failure on the fieldcraft rolls means initiative shifts.

“Track” Action

Tracking is an action. When a stand is within one base width of Spoor left by the enemy then it can track. A successful tracking roll means the player can reveals the closest enemy Sneaker. Failure means initiative passes. Regardless of the result the Spoor marker is removed from the table.

“Reorganise” Action

When two or more friendly Sneakers are within a stand width, the player can try to reorganise. On a successful fieldcraft role the player can reassign troops between the Sneaker markers. If the fieldcraft roll got only one hit then place a Spoor next to one of the Sneakers. Failure on the fieldcraft rolls means initiative shifts.

Fieldcraft ability

All stands have a Fieldcraft ability. This indicates how good the stand is a both concealment and tracking. Fieldcraft ability ranges from 0d6 (rudimentary) to 3d6 (expert). This is the number of d6 rolled when tracking or hiding. Effectively a stand with 0d6 fieldcraft cannot track or hide.

The “Sneak”, “Hide”, “Conceal Trail”, “Track” and “Reorganise” actions all require a successful fieldcraft roll. Throw the number of dice equal to the fieldcraft ability of the stand. Each dice gets a “Hit” on 5-6. The roll is successful if there is at least one hit. For some actions a single hit often comes with a penalty – a Spoor is placed. Failure means initiative passes.


Transport

In Africa cross country transport was provided by wheeled vehicles, helicopters and planes. That corresponds to trucks, air assault and parachute drops.

Off-road wheeled vehicles

Use the Hit the Dirt bogging special rule. Normal wheeled vehicles should bog easily when off road and on road in the rainy season. Specialist vehicles like the Unimog should not bog on hard ground and bog relatively rarely on softer ground. The Portuguese sometimes charged off road on Unimogs to pursue ambushers.

Air Assault: Inserting and evacuating ground troops

Use the Mount / Move / Dismount options in CF11.1.2 APC Passenger Capacity. It takes at least three initiatives for a helicopter to land troops and take off again. In the first they move to the landing zone (LZ). They are now considered hovering about the LZ. In the next initiative the helicopter lands and the troops dismount. In the third initiative the chopper takes off and moves away.

This requirement to hover makes the helicopter vulnerable to anti-aircraft fire. It also makes the troopers dismounting troops vulnerable to ground fire. The main thing stopping the enemy from rushing troops to to the location of a helicopter to shoot at the dismounting troops is the fact that the helicopter is likely to be armed and any enemy moving into range are subject to reactive fire. Troop carrying helicopters were often covered by a helicopter gunship.

A common tactic was for helicopters to land at several different LZ to confuse the enemy about where the troops were actually inserted. Rather than actual stands the player can dismount a Sneaker at each LZ. As usual the player must note which troops if any the Sneaker represents, so the Sneaker might be a dummy or real.

Like other passenger vehicles helicopters have a capacity (load) expressed in terms of slots. A small (2 man) team uses one slot. A large team uses up two slots. A commander (1 man) rides free but a command team (4-5 men) is a large team and uses two slots.

Helicopter Load (Slots) Armament
Alouette III 2 Twin MGs
Alouette III Gunship 20mm cannon
Puma SA330 6 None or twin 0.30

Parachute drops

A Combat Group of paratroops can drop on each DZ each initiative. For each stand (team, command team, crew served weapon) drop a base sized of paper from 2′ above the DZ. The stand’s fate depends on where the paper lands:

Where 1d6 Result
On structure, orchards or woods feature, rock or boulder fields, cliffs
1-2 Killed
3-4 Suppressed
5-6 OK
Off table or in impassable water (lakes, sea, deep/wide/fast rivers) N/A Killed
Anywhere else N/A OK

Paratroops cannot move in the initiative in which they land. Reactive and Ambush fire is conducted normally with the paratroopers counted as in the open in the turn in which they land.

Initiative does not pass if any are paratroopers are Suppressed or Killed due to the landing itself; initiative passes as normal for other reasons for example reactive fire, failure to rally, etc.

Sources of Inspiration

See Sources for Fogo Cruzado.

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