Order of Battle for Specific Battles of the Reconquista

Orders of Battle for various battles within the Reconquista.

Sagrajas Friday 23 Oct 1086

Al-Murabitun and Andalusians defeat an international but predominantly Castilian army.

Murabitun Camp (Yusuf ibn Tashufin, Sir ibn Abi Bakr, Dawud ibn Aisha)

12,000 or 20,000 men including Lamtuma

Ibn Tashufin had a Black Guard of 4,000.

Andalusian Camp

Sevillian Contingent (Emir al-Mutamid)

Granadine Contingent (Emir Abd Allah)

Malagan Contingent (Emir ??)

Badajoz Contingent (Emir al-Mutawwakil)

Christians (Alfonso VI) – 50-60,000 men

Vanguard (Alvar Fañez)

Aragonese Cavalry

Main Battle (King Alfonso VI)

including Aragonese, Italian and French


Alarcos 19 July 1195

A large army Almohades (including a small force of the Banu Merin) defeats a much smaller Leonese-Castilian force (perhaps 20-25,000).

Almohades (Abu Yusuf ya’qub al-Mansur)

First Line

Right Flank: Andalusian Cavalry

Centre: Almohade Veterans

Left Flank: Almohade Levies

Second Line

Close order Africans mostly armed with bow and javelins, although some have slings.

Reserves (Several Thousand strong)

Infantry – presumably with long spear

Negro Guardsmen

Castilians (Alfonso VIII)

Vanguard: 8,000 cavalry

Knights of Calatrava (including Master)

Knights of Santiago (including Master)



Las Navas de Tolosa 1212

Christians defeat Almohades. The Christians had 60-100,000 infantry and 10,000 cavalry, and had troops from Western Europe, Castile, Navarre, Aragon and Portugal, and Military Orders (Templars, Hospitallers, Santiago, Cavatrava). The Almohades reportedly had 460-600,000 men, including 100-185,000 cavalry and 30,000 Negro guards.

Almohades (Caliph Mohammed abu Abd-Allah)

Right: Mauritanian Light Cavalry

Centre: Andalusian Heavy Cavalry

Left: Mauritanian Light Cavalry



Negro Guard

Fortified Camp (Stockade reinforced by chains)


Vanguard (Count Diego Lopéz of Haro)

Left (Pere II of Aragon)

Centre (Gonzalo Nuñez de Lara)


Military Orders

Right (Sancho VII of Navarre)

Reserve (Alfonso VIII of Castile)

Najera (Navarette) 3 Apr 1367

English defeat Franco-Castilians at Najera.

Anglo-Castilians (The Black Prince, Don Pedro)

Vanguard (John of Gaunt)

1,200 Free Company Lances (Sir John Chandos)

1,800 Lances

Left Flank (Sir Thomas Percy and Olivier de Clissons)

2,000 Lances


4,000 Lances (Black Prince and Don Pedro)

Right Flank

2,000 Lances (Captal de Buch, Arnaud-Amanieu d’Albret, Don Martin Enriquez)


3,000 Gascon and Free Company Lances (King of Mallorca, the Comte d’armagnac, Sir Hugh Calveley, Perducas d’Albret)

Franco-Castilians (Henry de Trastamara, du Guesclin)

Vanguard – 1,000 or 4,000 men

(possibly 2,000) French men-at-arms (du Guesclin, Marshal d’Audrehem)

(possibly 500) men-at-arms of the Order of the Sash (Don Sancho and the Master of Santiago)

(possibly 1,500) Slingers, Javelinmen, and Crossbowmen

Left Flank (Don Tello and Hospitaller Grand Prior)

1,000 men-at-arms

2,000 Jinetes

Centre (Don Henry)

1,500 picked men-at-arms

Crossbowmen (somewhere in the second line, so probably in the centre)

Right Flank (High Chamberlain Gomez Carillo, Alfonso de Villena, Count of Denia, Master of Calatrava)

1,000 men-at-arms

2,000 Jinetes


5,500 Crossbowmen

43,000 other infantry

Franco-Castilian totals were 6,000 men-at-arms, 4,000 Jinetes, 6,000 crossbowmen and 44,000 other infantry. The Jinetes included some Granadine horsemen (Nicolle, 1988)

Aljubarrota 14 Aug 1385

Anglo-Portuguese defeat Franco-Castilians.

Order of Battle

Anglo-Portuguese (João of Portugal)


4-700 English (both archers and men-at-arms)

5-6,000 infantry (including many archers)

Protected by a barricade and stream


2-3,000 men-at-arms

Protected by a ditch


5-6,000 infantry (including many archers)

Protected by a barricade and stream

Franco-Castilians (Juan I of Castile)

Vanguard (Geoffroi de Parthenay)

1,500* French men-at-arms

Main Body (divided into left, centre and right)

4,500* men-at-arms

2,000 Jinetes


10,000 infantry (archers, crossbowmen, spearmen, javelinmen)

16 light cannon

* 6,000 men-at-arms in total and either 800 or 1,500 French.


The Anglo-Portuguese deployed amidst orchards near the abbey of Aljubarrota. They deployed up hill from the Franco-Castilians, and had streams covering both flanks.

Other factors

The battle was preceded by manourvering and although the Anglo-Portuguese got the better position, the Castialian nobles insisted the King attack anyway.

Olmedo 1445

Royalist Castilians defeat Rebel Nobility.


Gush, G. (1975). Renaissance Armies 1480-1650. Patrick Stephens.

Heath, I. (1980). Armies of the Dark Ages 600-1066 (2nd ed.). Wargames Research Group.

Heath, I. (1982). Armies of the Middle Ages, volume 1. Wargames Research Group.

Heath, I. (1989). Armies of Feudal Europe 1066-1300 (2nd ed.). Wargames Research Group.

Nicolle, D. (1998). The Fall of Granada 1481-1492: The twilight of Moorish Spain (Campaign Series 53). Osprey.

Kennedy, H. (1996). Muslim Spain and Portugal: A political history of al-Andalus. London: Longman.

Oman, C. (1987). A History of the Art of War in the Sixteenth Century. London: Greenhill Books. Originally published 1937.

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