Spanish Units at the Battle of Albuera

I thought I’d write up everything I could find about the Spanish units that fought at Albuera (16 May 1811). It started out as a “how do I paint them?” exercise for my Albuera Project then moved into a “where else could I use those figures?” exercise. Mainly I was just conscious that I’ve lots of material and this gives me an excuse to publish some of it in a way that adds something (i.e. the Albuera context).

I have ignored brigade organisation because it is irrelevant for Shako. Unless otherwise noted all infantry formations are single battalions and all cavalry are single squadrons. Unless otherwise stated the battle honours are taken from Oliver and Partridge (1999).

Spanish Uniforms in 1811

By the time of Albuera (16 May 1811) Spanish uniforms had become many and varied with troops wearing brown, blue, green, red and white (Chartrand, 1999a). The white infantry uniforms of 1808 were long gone. White uniforms still appeared, for example the British sent white uniforms in 1809 and some white uniforms were seen in Cadiz in 1810 (see below), but white was no longer common. The local brown cloth predominated in 1809-10 but by 1811 blue was starting to become the national colour. From 1809 the Spanish infantry favoured shakos over the bicorne (Chartrand, 1999a). The Spanish preferred a French style shako, i.e. wider at the top, although others were also used. From 1813 Shakos were often covered in a white linen cover. Round hats (i.e. top hats) were also very common amongst infantry and artillery.

Old Line Cavalry and Dragoon regiments seemed to have retained their old uniforms including the bicorn, but new regiments wore a variety of uniforms and adopted either Shakos or helmets.

Mike Oliver (2008 private communication) had this to say about the uniforms of Zayas and Lardizabal divisions at Albuera:

There is evidence that many would have been dressed in light blue uniforms supplied by the British and some would almost certainly have had access to stores of the old white uniforms. The guard would have likely been given dark blue because of their standing but I believe they would have worn French style shakos rather than bicornes. New regiments raised in Cádiz are widely depicted as wearing top hats – many with one side turned up – so it is likely that a substantial number of line units in Zayas and Lardizabal’s divisions would have been issued with these.

Mike went on to say that the light blue is:

speculative but what I like to call “informed speculation”. I have certainly read more than once that sky blue uniforms were worn by units from the Isla de León garrisons. There were many regional troops being trained there by the Junta General (Voluntarios Distinguidos de Cádiz), who wore predominantly brown or dark blue (NOT the 1812 regs) uniforms up to 1810 and then, for some regiments, on to 1814.

According to Chartrand (1999a) Southern Spain didn’t get light blue until 1812 but Mike assumes that light blue stock headed for Catalonia was probably redirected in Cadiz.

Many of the Spanish troops at Albuera were from the Army of Andalucia. In Feb 1810 Antonio Pereira Pacheco painted a few of the units parading around Cadiz. Few of them fought at Albuera but they do illustrate the types of uniforms in vogue during the period.


Reales Guardias Españolas.jpg (27369 bytes)

Reales Guardias
Españolas


antonio_pereira_pacheco-Regimiento de Infantería de línea La Reina.jpg (25126 bytes)

Rgto. Infantería
de Línea
La Reina/Galicia


antonio_pereira_pacheco-Regimiento de Leales de Fernando VII.jpg (26745 bytes)

Rgto. de Leales
de Fernando VII


Rgto. Línea
Defensores Veteranos
de la Patria


antonio_pereira_pacheco-Batallón de Granaderos de la Isla de Canarias.jpg (23695 bytes)

Granaderos
de la Isla
de Canarias


antonio_pereira_pacheco-Granaderos de Tenerife en Pití Uniforme.jpg (26566 bytes)

Granaderos
de la Isla
de Canarias
(Undress Uniform)


antonio_pereira_pacheco-Batallón Fijo de Canarias 2.jpg (28066 bytes)

Batallón Fijo
de Canarias
(Dress Uniform)


Batallón Fijo
de Canarias
(Campaign Dress)


antonio_pereira_pacheco-Voluntarios Distinguidos de Cadiz (Guacamayos).jpg (25259 bytes)

Voluntarios
Distinguidos de Cádiz
(Guacamayos)
(Dress Uniform)


antonio_pereira_pacheco-Voluntarios Distinguidos de Cádiz (Guacamayos).jpg (22964 bytes)

Voluntarios
Distinguidos de Cádiz
(Guacamayos)
(Service Dress)


Voluntarios de Cádiz (Cananeos).jpg (29141 bytes)

Voluntarios Distinguidos de Cádiz
(Cananeos)
(Service Dress)


Voluntarios Distinguidos de Cádiz (Guacamayos)  2.jpg (26777 bytes)

Voluntarios
Distinguidos de Cadiz
(Guacamayos)
(Campaign Dress)


Voluntarios de la Isla de León.jpg (27505 bytes)

Voluntarios
de la Isla
de León


antonio_pereira_pacheco-Regimiento Provincial N° 2 de Guadix.jpg (25893 bytes)

Rgto. Provincial
de Guadix


antonio_pereira_pacheco-Regimiento Ligero Valencia de Alburquerque.jpg (25689 bytes)

Rgto. Ligero
Valencia
de Alburquerque


antonio_pereira_pacheco-Artilleros distinguidos de Cádiz.jpg (28431 bytes)

Artilleros
Distinguidos
de Cádiz


antonio_pereira_pacheco-Bombarderos de Cádiz.jpg (28517 bytes)

Bombarderos
de Cádiz
(Service Dress)


antonio_pereira_pacheco-Artilleros Voluntarios de Extramuros.jpg (23996 bytes)

Artilleros
Voluntarios
de Extramuros


antonio_pereira_pacheco-Regimiento de Dragones de Fernando VII.jpg (27803 bytes)

Rgto. de Dragones
de Fernando VII

Britain sent a lot of uniforms to Spain (see British Shipments). Some Spanish divisions were wholely equipped by Britiain. In 1809-10 the British supplied uniforms in dark blue, sky blue, grey, and white (Chartrand, 1999a). By 1811 the uniforms were exclusively blue; sky blue predomnated at the start but dark blue quickly took over. It was on 12 Dec 1811, after Albuera, that the so called “English” uniform became the national uniform.

4th Division (Zayas)

José Zayas formed the 4th Division of the Army of Reserve of Andalusia on the Isla de Leon in late 1810 (Oliver & Partridge, 1999, 2007). Zayas trained the division for six months with his new manual of instruction. This involved adopting new battalion organisation of six companies: four fuslier, one grenadier and one cazadore. There is evidence that his division was also relatively uniformly dressed. Brown and blue were the dominant tunic colours in the division. The division took part in the operations to raise the siege of Cadiz in Feb – Mar 1811, including the successful Battle of Barossa (Chiclana), before fighting at Albuera (16 May 1811), and Saguntum.

Mike Oliver (2008 private communication):

Zayas’ division was composed of the units he commanded on the Isla de León (Cádiz) when Barrosa (Chiclana) was fought – Zayas & Lardizabal fought a separate action as part of this campaign. It was during this period that Zayas wrote “Instrucciones sobre el buen orden militar” (Instructions concerning good military order) in which he effectively writes a new drill manual. His own troops and those of Lardizabal would almost certainly have been trained according to these instructions and their presence on the island would have given them access to the best uniforms available to the army. There is evidence that many would have been dressed in light blue uniforms supplied by the British and some would almost certainly have had access to stores of the old white uniforms. The guard would have likely been given dark blue because of their standing but I believe they would have worn French style shakos rather than bicornes. New regiments raised in Cádiz are widely depicted as wearing top hats – many with one side turned up – so it is likely that a substantial number of line units in Zayas’ and Lardizabal’s divisions would have been issued with these.

There is also evidence to indicate that their units would have been re-organised to the 6-company structure with grenadier and light companies on the French model. In the reports from several Spanish officers (including Burriel’s official one), the Spanish Guards and Rto de Irlanda are said to have deployed their flank companies to counter the French tirailleurs in Girard’s main attack and to have done so very effectively. Under the old structure, each battalion would have had only 32 men to perform this function and could not have mounted a successful counter.

2nd & 4th Bón Real Guardias España

Raised 1704 (Oliver & Partridge, 1999). At the start of the Peninsular War the Spanish Guards had three battalions but were expanded to four on 7 Aug 1808. The 2nd battalion began the war in Barcelona. After Duhesme took the city by stealth the men of 2nd battalion deserted piecemeal and formed the basis of several new “2nd Bn Real Guardias España”. The 2nd and 4th batallions managed to reach Cadiz in early 1810 (Chartrand, 1999a).

Battle 2nd Bón 4th Bón Comment
Medina de Rio Seco Yes
Gamonal Yes
Siege of Zaragoza II Yes
Almonacíd Yes In Girón’s division
Ocaña Yes In Girón’s division
Albuera (16 May 1811) Yes Yes
Saguntum Yes Yes

Lachouque et al (1982) Figure 5 (p. 18) is an officer of the Spanish Guard in 1808.


Reales Guardias Españolas.jpg (27369 bytes)

Spanish Guards

In Feb 1810 Antonio Pereira Pacheco painted a watercolour of the Spanish Guard. It looks quite like the description Chartrand (1999b) give for 1811-12. This is a blue coatee, pantaloons and gaiters; scarlet cuffs, turnbacks and waistcoat; white buttonhole lace (probably pointed and set in threes), white metal buttons, shako with red cockcade.

Chartrand also says the uniform of the Spanish and Walloon Guards was basically the same (although the Walloon Guard’s buttonhole lace was set in twos). Both Chartrand (1999b) and Haythornthwaite (1995) have illustrations of the Walloon Guards in 1813 based on a painting by Denis Dighton. Windrow and Embleton (1974) has a black and white copy of the Dighton picture (p. 65).

Chartrand (1999b) Figure D1 is the Walloon Guards in 1813. Their uniform is similar to the 1805 regulation but substituting a bell top shako for the bicorne and black gaiters for white. The full description is blue coat with scarlet collar, cuffs, lapels, and long turnbacks; white lace all around the collar, white pointed buttonhole lace in pairs; pewter buttons, white epaulettes; white waistcoat an breeches, black gaiters over the knees; shako with white bands an cords;, oval plate, greenpompon; black accoutrements with brass belt plate, and belly box for cartridges.

Haythornthwaite (1995) Figure 38a is also the Walloon Guards in 1813. The uniform is the same as given in Chartrand however the shako is edged in black rather than white.

The 2nd Battalion of the Spanish Guards would have carried a white Ordenanza with the red cross of Burgundy bearing golden crows at the end of each arm. In the centre were the royal arms with two golden lions as supporters (Wise, 1984).

The 4th Battalion of the Spanish Guards adopted a non-regulation flag (Wise, 1984). The obverse had the following moto (the underlined letters were back to front in the original). I don’t know what the reverse had.

POR EL REI FERNANDO VII

VENCER O MORIR

ON
SV PVARTO VATA DER GVARDIAS

1st Bón Real Guardias Walonas

The Walloon Guards were raised in 1704 (Oliver & Partridge, 1999). In 1808 they had three battalions but this was expanded to four in Aug 1808. In Jan 1812 it was cut back to two battalions (Chartrand, 1999b).

The 1st battalion started the war in Madrid (Oliver & Partridge, 1999). The battalion fought at Ucles (13 Jan 1809), Almonacid, Sagumtum. The latter at least was as part of 2nd Division in 4th Army.

Oman (1902) states that 1st Walloon Guards fought at Saguntum. Oliver & Partridge (1999) believe it was actually 4th Walloon Guards because all the units of 4th Division that fought at Albuera also fought at Saguntum with the exception of Irlanda.

Battle Comment
Ucles
Almonacíd
Ocaña Oman (1902) states that 1st Spanish Guards fought at Ocaña in Girón’s division along with 2nd Spanish Guards. Oliver & Partridge (1999) believe it was 1st Walloon Guards, not 1st Spanish, because 1st Walloon and 2nd Spanish were in Girn’s division at Almonacíd.
Albuera (16 May 1811)
Saguntum

Question: Do the division & army designations in Oliver & Partridge (1999) refer to the preceding battle or all battles?

Lachouque et al (1982) Figure 6 (p. 18) is from the Walloon Guards.

Chartrand says the uniform of the Spanish and Walloon Guards was basically the same (although the Walloon Guard’s buttonhole lace was set in twos). Chartrand (1999b) describes the uniform of the Spanish Guards in 1811-12 as blue coatee, pantaloons and gaiters; scarlet cuffs, turnbacks and waistcoat; white buttonhole lace (probably pointed and set in threes), white metal buttons, shako with red cockcade.

Both Chartrand (1999b) and Haythornthwaite (1995) have illustrations of the Walloon Guards in 1813 based on a painting by Denis Dighton. Windrow and Embleton (1974) has a black and white copy of the Dighton picture (p. 65).

Chartrand (1999b) Figure D1 is the Walloon Guards in 1813. There uniform is similar to the 1805 regulation but substituting a bell top shako for the bicorne and black gaiters for white. The full description is blue coat with scarlet collar, cuffs, lapels, and long turnbacks; white lace all around the collar, white pointed buttonhole lace in pairs; pewter buttons, white epaulettes; white waistcoat an breeches, black gaiters over the knees; shako with white bands an cords;, oval plate, greenpompon; black accoutrements with brass belt plate, and belly box for cartridges.

Haythornthwaite (1995) Figure 38a is also the Walloon Guards in 1813. The uniform is the same as given in Chartrand but the shako is edged in black rather than white.

The 1st Battalion of the Walloon Guards would have carried a blue (not white) Ordenanza with the red cross of Burgundy bearing golden crows at the end of each arm. In the centre were the royal arms with two golden lions as supporters (Wise, 1984). They may have carried the Coronela as well. This had a purple field, scattered with embroidered golden fleurs-de-lis (Wise, 1984). I assume the Coronela would also have had the royal coat-of-arms in the centre.

2nd & 3rd Bón Rgto de Irlanda

The nominally Irish regiment Irlanda was one of the old foreign regiments in the line infantry. It was raised 1698. The 2nd and 3rd Battalions fought at Albuera (Oliver & Partridge, 1999). Both battalions were located in Andulasia at the outbreak of hostilities in 1808 and were involved in several battles leading up to Albuera. Unlike the rest of Zayas’s 4th Division they did not fight at Saguntum.

Battle 2nd Bón 3rd Bón Comment
Bailen Yes Yes
Somosierra Yes Yes Two battalions of Irlanda were present at Somosierra and Medellin (28 Mar 1809) (Oliver & Partridge, 1999). It is most likely to have been the 2nd and 3rd as these battalions were in San Juan’s old ‘Army Reserve of Madrid’ whereas the 1st battalion fought in La Pena’s Division in the ‘Army of the Centre’ which fought at Tudela (23 Nov 1808) and Ucles (13 Jan 1809).
Medellin (28 Mar 1809) Yes Yes
Talavera Possibly Possibly Two battalions of the regiment also fought at Talavera. it is not clear which ones
Albuera (16 May 1811) Yes Yes

At Albuera the total strength was 749 officers and men so it is possible the regiment fought as one battalion (Oliver & Partridge, 2007). This is supported by the fact that Lt. Col. Velasco directly commanded the ‘first company of cazadores from Irlanda’ – a high ranking officer for such a lowly command – but this probably allowed Brigadier Ibeagh to command the combined battalion. This is also interesting because it means Irlanda had at least one cazadore company in 1811, which they certainly didn’t in 1808.

Haythornthwaite (1995) Figure 31c is an Officer from Irlanda in 1808.

Question: What did Irlanda wear at Albuera?

Rgto Imperiales de Toledo

The Regiment of Toledo was one of the old line infantry regiments. it was raised in 1661 (Oliver & Partridge, 1999). It had three battalions in 1808; the 1st and 2nd battalions were in Galicia and the 3rd in Portugal.

Battle Comment
Rio de Seco 2 battalions – probably 1st and 2nd
Zornoza 2 battalions – probably 1st and 2nd
Siege of Tamames / Alba de Tormes 1st and 3rd
Gébora 2 battalions
Albuera (16 May 1811) Probably only one battalion by now
Sagumtum

At the start of the war the Toledo regiment had the regulation white uniform. This changed to brown sometime before Albuera and changed again to blue in 1813-14 (Chartrand, 1999a) .

Mike Oliver (private communcation) said “It is generally accepted the Rto de Toledo, for example, wore a brown uniform with yellow facings with a mixture of top hats and French shakos”. Presumably this is following the water colours by Denis Dighton. Windrow (1974) has a black and white copy of the Dighton picture (p. 65). Both Chartrand (1999a) and Haythornthwaite (1995) include colour figures based on those by Dighton.

Chartrand (1999a) Figure H1 is a Fusilier of the Toledo Regiment c. 1811-13. He matches Mike’s description with brown coat, bell top shako, white trousers, yellow collar, cuffs and lapels, and white epaulettes.

Haythornthwaite (1995) Figure 38b is Col. Don Juan de Gonzales of the Toledo Regiment dated 22 Jun 1813. He has the same brown coat as the men, but compliments with with a black bicorne and trousers, brown boots, and a red waist sash.

Rgto Voluntarios de la Patria

Oliver and Partridge (2007) give “Rgto Veteranos de la Patria” in the Orbat of Zayas’s division at Albuera. The trouble is according the handbook of the same authors the (Oliver & Partridge, 1999) the “Rto Veteranos de la Patria” was raised 10 Aug 1813 and was absorbed by Rto de Ceuta on 2 Mar 1815. This is problematic because Albuera was in 1811. I think this is a typo because the handbook lists the “Vol. de la Patria” as fighting at Albuera.

Rgto Voluntarios de la Patria was raised 14 Sep 1808 with three battalions, fought at Albuera and Saguntum, and was disbanded on 9 Jan 1812 at the fall of Valencia (Chartrand, 1999a; Oliver & Partridge, 1999).

Battle Comment
Albuera (16 May 1811) Only 594 officers and men (Oliver & Partridge, 2007) so probably only one battalion by this time.
Sagumtum

Conard has a picture of the Voluntarios de la Patria. Black shako, yellow lace and cords, brass palte and chinscales, red cockade and plume, dark green coatee with red collar, shoulder straps and cuffs flaps (but not cuffs), yellow piping, green turnbacks, brass buttons, white waistcoat and breeches,black gaiters, white belt, black cartridge box. Haythornthwaite (1995), who has a black and white version of this figure (Figure C a) gives the date as 1808.

Conard
Left to Right: Voluntarios de la Patria, Leales de Fernando VII,
Santa Fe, La muerte, Voluntarios de la Victoria


Regimiento de Línea Defensores Veteranos de la Patria.jpg (25829 bytes)

Veteranos
de la Patria

In Feb 1810, whilst in Cadiz, Antonio Pereira Pacheco painted a watercolour of the Regimiento de Línea Defensores Veteranos de la Patria. I can’t help thinking this is the same unit. This unit arrived in Cadiz on 4 Feb 1810 and remained there except for a short expedition to Algeciras in Jun 1810 (Chartrand, 1999b).

Question: Confirm that it is actually “Voluntarios de la Patria” as the unit that fought at Albuera and not “Veteranos de la Patria”. And what about “Regimiento de Línea Defensores Veteranos de la Patria”?

Rgto de Ciudad Real

The Regiment of Ciudad Real started the war as a militia unit, stationed in Andalucia, but was incorporated into the line in 1810 (Oliver & Partridge, 1999, 2007).

Battle Comment
Bailen
Tudela (23 Nov 1808)
Almonacid
Ocaña
Barrosa campaign In Cruz-Murgeon’s detachment
Albuera (16 May 1811)
Saguntum Oman lists Ciudad Rodrigo but

  • this unit has surrendered at the city of the same name the previous year
  • Ciudad Real was with 4th Division at Albuera and, except for Irlanda, it was the same 4th Division that fought at Saguntum

Question: What did Rgto de Ciudad Real wear at Albuera?

Legión de Vol Estranjeros

A foreign legion no less. Oliver and Partridge (1999) say this unit was raised 1 Aug 1808 and absorted by the Walloon Guards on 1 Jul 1810. But, confusingly, they also say the unit fought at Talavera, Albuera and Saguntum – the latter two battles being after 1 Jul 1810! It is probably there was more than one regiment of this name and different regiments fought at different battles.

Battle Comment
Talavera
Albuera (16 May 1811)
Saguntum

Question: Which foreigners made up the Legión de Vol Estranjeros? What did they wear at Albuera?

Question: Oliver and Partridge (1999) say the Legión de Vol Estranjeros were absorted by the Walloon Guards on 1 Jul 1810 but also says they fought at Albuera and Saguntum! What is the deal?

Zapadores

90 officers and men (Oliver & Partridge, 2007). They may not have been directly involved in the battle as they suffered no casualties.

Vanguard Division (Lardizabal)

Lardizabal was given command of the new Vanguard Division in Feb 1811 (Oliver & Partridge, 2007). There is no record of Lardizabal before that time so it is quite likely this was his first active command. Although a new formation the division had some veteran units and in addition they were on the Isla de Leon when José Zayas was implementing his new manual of instruction so probably benefited from this initiative.

1st and 2nd Bón Rgto de Murcia

The Regiment of Murcia was one of the line infantry regiments. It was raised in 1694 (Oliver & Partridge, 1999). It had three battalions in 1808: 1st and 2nd were in Portugal and the 3rd in Andalucia.

Battle 1st Bón 2nd Bón Comment
Tudela (23 Nov 1808) Possibly Possibly 2 battalions
Ucles (13 Jan 1809) Possibly Possibly 2 battalions
Talavera Possibly Possibly 2 battalions
Oca Possibly Possibly 2 battalions
Torre Bermeja Possibly Possibly 2 battalions
Albuera (16 May 1811) Yes Yes
Saguntum Possibly Possibly 2 battalions

Although both the 1st and 2nd battalions were present at Albuera, they fought as one unit (Oliver & Partridge, 2007), presumably because of reduced man power.

Question: What did the Rgto de Murcia wear at Albuera?

Cazadores Reunidos del Rgto de Murcia

A “Reunidos” unit was a temporary formation made up of flank companies from different battalions. This was a way to concentrate elite troops for some crucial action and was not peculiar to the Spanish. In this case we’re talking about a small number of cazadores so presumably they acted as a skirmisher screen. As mentioned above the parent battalions were also merged for the battle (Oliver & Partridge, 2007).

Question: My reading of (Oliver & Partridge, 2007) is that there were only 49 of the cazadores. Is that right?

Rgto Ligero de Campo Mayor

Presumably this unit is the Voluntarios de Campo Mayor listed in Oliver and Partridge (1999). That makes it one of the original light infantry regiments with a complement of 1,200 men at the start of the war. A half battalion was in Portugual and the other half battalion in Andalusia. It was raised in 1802.

Battle Comment
Bailen
Ucles (13 Jan 1809)
Medellin (28 Mar 1809)
Talavera Oliver and Partridge (1999) believe they fought in the Vanguard under Zayas
Torre Bermeja
Albuera (16 May 1811)
Saguntum

Question: What did the Rgto Ligero de Campo Mayor wear at Albuera?

2nd Bón, 2nd Rgto de Leon

The Regiment of Leon started the war as a militia unit but was incorporated into the line in 1810 (Oliver & Partridge, 2007).

Battle Comment

Question: Who were the 2nd Bón, 2nd Rgto de Leon? I can’t find them in Oliver and Partridge (1999). I can find the Leon Militia unit and the various Volunteers of Legon but not a 2nd Regiment of Leon. What did they wear at Albuera?

Bón Fijo Milicia Provincial de Canarias

A battalion from the Canaries fought at Albuera (Oman, 1996 Volume IV). According to Oliver and Partridge (2007) it was the Bón Fijo Milicia Provincial de Canarias, an urban militia unit raised during the war and not part of the original militia structure. Oliver and Partridge (1999) is also explicit that this was an urban militia unit (as was the Batallón de Canarias) but didn’t know when it was raised. In contrast Chartrand (1999a) says it was the Bón Infanteria de Canarias (Canarias Battalion) and regular. Hmmm.

It turns out the Canarias Battalion had several names from its creation through to the end of the Peninsular War (Juanvi: Unidades de Infantería: TENERIFE Nº 49):

  • 1770 raised as Compañías Fijas de Infantería de Canarias (Fixed Infantry Companies of the Canaries)
  • 1792 renamed Batallón Fijo de Infantería Ligera de Canarias (Fixed Light Infantry Battalion of the Canaries)
  • 1793 renamed Regimiento Fijo Provincial de Milicias de Canarias (Fixed Provincial Militia Regiment of the Canaries)
  • 1802 became Batalln de Infantería Ligera de Canarias (Light Infantry Battalion of the Canaries)
  • 1805 renamed Batallón Fijo Provincial de Canarias (Fixed Provincial Battalion of the Canaries)
  • 1810 renamed Regimiento de Infantería de Canarias (Infantry Regiment of the Canaries)

Chartrand (1998) says the Canarias Battalion was raised 31 Dec 1792, but this probably corresponds with the adoption of the tern battalion rather than companies. Tthe battalion left the Canaries on 29 Mar 1809, arrived in Cadiz, fought at Talavera (1809), was reorganised into a battalion of six companies (1 Jul 1810), then fought at Albuera and again at Castalla (1812), then added a company of grenadiers and another of cazadores (8 May 1812) (Chartrand, 1999a; Oliver & Partridge, 1999).

Battle Comment
Torre Bermeja
Talavera Oliver and Partridge (1999) don’t award this battle honour to the unit (p. 328) but do assume that Canaria and the Provincial Grenadiers mentioned by Oman (1996 Volume IV) are this unit and the Batalln de Granaderos de Gran Canaria (p. 326). Chartrand (1999a) explicitly mentions Talavera.
Albuera (16 May 1811)
Castalla (1812)

Chartrand (1998) Figure C1 is a Fusilier of the Canarias Battalion in 1797. Not that that helps as it is a long time before our period.


Batallón Fijo de Canarias.jpg (28035 bytes)

Fijo de
Canarias

In Feb 1810 Antonio Pareira Pacheco painted a watercolour a officer of the Bón Infanteria de Canarias in campaign dress. The officer has a brown jacket with red collar, cuffs, piping and buttonhole lace on the lapels, green lapels and piping edging the collar and cuffs, and silver epaulettes. The figure also has white breeches plus a black shako with silver lace and a red plume.

Apparently one of the Bueno books – I’m guessing Uniformes Espanoles De La Guerra De Independencia – has an illustration of the Bón Fijo Milicia Provincial de Canarias.

Question: OK who is right about the unit from the Canaries? Urban militia unit or regular unit?

3rd Division (Lt. Gen. Ballasteros)

Ballasteros’s division was Asturian in origin (Oliver & Partridge, 2007). He was appointed Mariscal de Campo by the Asturian junta and given a division of troops with which to adance into Leon. He then operated on the Andalusian border from Feb 1810 until he joined Beresford’s Army for Albuera. The troops had a reputation for ill-discipline and made free with supplies allocated for other units.

The northern origin of this division has implications for what they wore. The British shipped different coloured uniforms to different parts of the peninsular in different years. In 1810 the British shipped 14,000 grey jackets, 6,000 blue jackets, 20,000 grey pantaloons, 20,000 shakos (with no plates), black accourtements, muskets and bayonets to Northern Spain. Chartrand (1999a) figures D2 and D3 are based on the British shipment to Northern Spain in 1810.

The fact that the division has been largely in the field for over a year probably also made a considerable impact on their appearance. They probably had to rely heavily on local brown cloth as their uniforms wore out.

1st Bón Provisional Compañias de Catalanes

This provisional battalion was formed at Merida in Apr 1811 from survivors of the parent body captured at the fall of Badajoz in Mar (Oliver & Partridge, 2007). The size of the unit is unknown.

Battle Comment

Question: Who was the parent body of the 1st Bón Provisional Compañias de Catalanes? What did they wear at Albuera?

Rgto de 2nd Cazadores de Barbastro (Ligero)

The Spanish Order of Battle for Albuera in Oman (1996 Volume IV) just lists this as “Barbastro”. The trouble is, which “Barbastro”?

  • Oliver and Partridge (1999) give the honours to “Rgto de Cazadores de Barbastro”, i.e. the old light infantry regiment.
  • It seems Oliver and Partridge (2007) changed their minds because they listed “Rgto de 2nd Cazadores de Barbastro”, i.e. a new formation, in the Order of Battle for Albuera.
  • Chartrand (1999a) says it was the Tiradores de Doyle who were renamed the Cazadores de Barbastros in 1811.

So here we go on all these options …

“Rgto de Cazadores de Barbastro”, i.e. the old light infantry regiment

The Cazadores de Barbastro were one of the old light infantry regiments. Oliver and Partridge (1999) assume the unit called “Barbastro” that fought at Albuera was formed around a cadre of men that escaped from Zaragoza, Olivenza, andor Arquillos.

Battle Comment
Rio de Seco 1/2 battalion
Bailen 1/2 battalion. Group A
Zornoza Group B
Tudela (23 Nov 1808) Group A
Ucles (13 Jan 1809)
Siege of Tamames / Alba de Tormes
Olivenza
Albuera (16 May 1811) According to Oliver and Partridge (1999) but not Oliver and Partridge (2007) or Chartrand (1999a)

Oliver and Partridge (1999) distinguish between a # and a * part of the battalion but I thought it would be clearer to call them Group A and Group B.

“Rgto de 2nd Cazadores de Barbastro”, i.e. a new formation

Oliver and Partridge (1999) say the Rgto de 2nd Cazadores de Barbastro was raised 1 Mar 1809, fought at Talavera and Ocaña and surrendered at Arguillos (20 Jan 1810).

Battle Comment
Talavera
Ocaña
Albuera (16 May 1811) According to Oliver and Partridge (2007) but not Oliver and Partridge (1999) or Chartrand (1999a)
Tiradores de Doyle renamed the Cazadores de Barbastros

Chartrand (1999a) says the Cazadores de Barbastros that fought at Albuera was raised by a British officer, Col. Charles W. Doyle, fighting with the insurgents. It was originally called Tiradores de Doyle. Doyle returned to England in 1811 and Antonio Guerrerro took over command. The unit was renamed Cazadores de Barbastros after the old light infantry regiment raised in 1794 but was still known as “Doyle’s”. They were still around in 1812 … in fact Wellington ordered uniforms for them in August.

Oliver and Partridge (1999) list Doyle’s unit separately from the Cazadores de Barbastro. In fact they have Doyle’s unit in the ‘Unidentified’ list.

Battle Comment
Siege of Zaragoza I
Siege of Zaragoza II Oliver and Partridge (1999) don’t think so. Apparently Bueno lists them present but Oman says they weren’t at the Capitulation.
Albuera (16 May 1811) According to Chartrand (1999a) but not Oliver and Partridge (1999, 2007)
Saguntum Listed by both Oliver and Partridge (1999) and Chartrand (1999a)

Bueno, cited in Oliver and Partridge (1999), calls them the “Batallón de Tiradores de Osera de Doyle”.

Doyle’s unit originally wore red uniforms (presumbably meaning the jacket was red), white waistcoats and breeches, and (probably) round hats (Chartrand, 1999a). In May 1810 they received new uniforms while in Gibraltar. Wellington ordered uniforms for them in Aug 1812. I’ve no information on the latter two uniforms.

Conclusion

I assume Doyle’s unit is actually the 2nd Cazadores de Barbastro and it was these boys who fought at Albuera. If so they would have worn the uniform issued at Gibraltar in May 1810 at Albuera.

Question: Which Cazadores de Barbastro fought at Albuera? Doyle’s or the remnants of the original light infantry unit? Or were they the same? What did they wear at Albuera?

Rgto de Castropol

Raised 27 May 1808 in the Asturias and absorted by the Walloon Guards on 31 Aug 1814 (Oliver & Partridge, 1999).

Battle Comment
Espinosa
Siege of Tamames / Alba de Tormes
Albuera (16 May 1811)

Rene Chartrand has a few illustrations of the Castropol Regiment based on

Sergeant Juan de Murias (1817). Historial del Regimiento de Castropol. Oviedo.

Chartrand (1999a) Figure B3 in is a Fusilier from the Castropol regiment in 1809. He looks like he is wearing 1805 white uniform with red facings but had substituted a forage cap for the bicorne. Despite appearances this is a British supplied uniform. Chartrand suspects the entire division, who were raised and equipped at that time, received the same uniforms.

Unfortunately Chartrand doesn’t include an illustration for the period leading up to Albuera (1810-11).

Chartrand (1999b) Figure B1 is a Fusilier from the Castropol regiment wearing the uniform issued 24 Jun 1812. This is a British supplied uniform of sky blue coatee and pantaloons; black collar, cuffs, gaiters and shako; and brass buttons.

Chartrand (1999b) Figure G3 is a Fusilier from the Castropol regiment wearing the uniform issued on 8 Apr 1814. This is a blue (single breasted) coatee with scarlet collar and cuffs, white cuff flap, piping and turnbacks; gilt buttons; blue pantaloons (winter issue); black shoes, black shako and plate. The returns of 1815 show the same details but add the summer issue pantaloons were white, greatcoats grey and gaiters black.

Question: What did the Castropol regiment wear in 1810-11 hence at Albuera?

Rgto de Cangas de Tineo

Raised 27 May 1808 and absorted by the Walloon Guards on 31 Aug 1814 (Oliver & Partridge, 1999).

Battle Comment
Espinosa
Siege of Tamames / Alba de Tormes
Albuera (16 May 1811)

Rgto de Infiesto

Raised 27 May 1808 and absorted by the Walloon Guards on 31 Aug 1814 (Oliver & Partridge, 1999).

Battle Comment
Siege of Tamames / Alba de Tormes
Albuera (16 May 1811)

Rgto de Lena

Raised 27 May 1808 and absorted by the Walloon Guards on 31 Aug 1814 (Oliver & Partridge, 1999).

Battle Comment
Espinosa
Siege of Tamames / Alba de Tormes
Albuera (16 May 1811)

Rgto de Pravia (Ligero)

Raised 27 May 1808 and absorted by the Walloon Guards on 31 Aug 1814 (Oliver & Partridge, 1999). Oliver and Partridge (2007) lists it as a light battalion.

Battle Comment
Siege of Tamames / Alba de Tormes
Albuera (16 May 1811)

Elements of 5th Army (Castaños) seconded to 4th Army

Elements of 1st Division from 5th Army (Castaños) were seconded to 4th Army for the battle (Oliver & Partridge, 2007).

Brigade De Espana

Captain Roverea, ADC to Coles in the British Army, described De Espana’s men as “without coats and badly armed” (Cited in Edwards, 2008, p. 130).

Rgto de Inmemorial del Rey

El Rey was the premier line infantry regiment and “very old” (Oliver & Partridge, 1999). Like all the line regiments Rey started the war with three battalions. It had one each in San Sebastian, Portugal and Galicia.

Battle 1st Bón 2nd Bón 3rd Bón Comment
Rio de Seco Yes Yes
Zornoza Possibly Possibly Possibly 2 battalions
Tamames / Alba de Tormes Yes Yes
Gbora Possibly Possibly Possibly 2 battalions
Lines of Torres Vedras Possibly Possibly Possibly 2 battalions
Albuera (16 May 1811) Yes Possibly reduced to one battalion in size

Question: Were the Rgto de Inmemorial del Rey reduced to one battalion by Albuera?

Rgto de Zamora

Zamora was one othe old line infantry regiments. Like all the line regiments Zamora started the war with three battalions but they were all in Denmark as part of La Romana’s Division (Oliver & Partridge, 1999).

Battle 1st Bón 2nd Bn 3rd Bón Comment
Espinosa Yes Yes Yes
Tudela (23 Nov 1808) Possibly Possibly Possibly 1,500 men so probably the entire regiment
Tamames / Alba de Tormes Yes Yes
Gêbora Possibly Possibly Possibly 2 battalions
Lines of Torres Vedras Possibly Possibly Possibly 2 battalions
Albuera (16 May 1811) Yes Possibly reduced to one battalion in size

It is unclear which battalion fought at Albuera and it is quite likely that through losses and reorganisation that by 1811 there was only one battalion (Oliver & Partridge, 2007).

Lachouque et al (1982) Figure 1 and 2 (p. 17) are a Drum Major and Fusilier from Zamora from 1807.

Haythornthwaite (1995) Figure 32a is a Grenadier from Zamora in 1808.

Question: What did the Rgto de Zamora wear at Albuera?

Rgto Voluntarios de Navarra (Ligero)

The Volunteers of Navarre were one of the old light infantry regiments. In 1808 they were up to strength with one large battalion of 1,200 men. One half battaion was stationed in Portugal and the other half battalion in Galicia (Oliver & Partridge, 1999).

Battle Comment

Question: What did the Rgto Voluntarios de Navarra wear at Albuera?

Zapadores y Guias (1 coy)

Oliver and Partridge (2007) assume the Guias (Guides) were formed from the chosen men of the old style regiments. In the regulations current in 1808 eight men from each battalion were selected to act as sharp shooters and guides/scouts when the battalion was on the march.

Cavalry from 4th Army – under Lumley

Húsares de Castilla

Húsares de Castilla were raised 1 Sep 1808, were retained as one of the five regular provincial hussar squadrons authorised in the 6 Apr 1811 reorganisation of the cavalry, fought at Albuera and Saguntum, and were absorbed by the Rto del Rey on 1 May 1813 (Chantrand, 1999a; Oliver & Partridge, 1999).

Battle Comment
Albuera (16 May 1811) Oliver and Partridge (1999) say 500 officers and men. Oliver and Partridge (2007) say 394 officers and men, i.e. about three squadrons, but the unit only sufferred three casualties so was probably not heavily engaged.
Saguntum 70

Question: What did the Húsares de Castilla wear at Albuera?

Esc de Granaderos del IV Ejercito (2 sqn)

The Granaderos del IV Ejercito (Grenadieers of 4th Army) were raised 15 May 1810, were officially converted to a foot regiment in the reorganisation of 6 Apr 1811 but fought at Albuera (16 May 1811) as cavalry. They may also have fought at Saguntum as cavalry given they were absorbed into two cavalry regiments (Rtos de Almansa and Olivenza) on 1 Jun 1812 (Oliver & Partridge, 1999).

Battle Comment
Albuera (16 May 1811) 300
Saguntum 160

Question: What did the Esc de Granaderos del IV Ejercito wear at Albuera?

Provisional de Santiago

Oliver and Partridge (2007) list the Provisional de Santiago as one of the cavalry units at Albuera. They also comment that this formation was schedueled to be absorbed into the Rgto del Rey line but this hadn’t happened by the time of the battle. 355 officers and men were present at Albuera, i.e. about 2-3 squadrons, but the unit only sufferred seven casualties so was probably not heavily engaged.

I couldn’t find Provisional de Santiago in Oliver and Partridge (1999) but they do list a 2o Rto de Santiago in their new regular cavalry regiments. 2o Rto de Santiago was raised 1 Jun 1809, has no listed battle honours, and was absorbed by Rto del Rey 6 Apr 1811. I’m not sure if this is the same unit but it is interesting that both were absorbed by Del Rey – admittedly 2nd regiment was apparently absorbed (6 Apr 1811) before Albuera (16 May 1811).

Battle Comment

Assuming these guys looked like Del Rey…

Officially the line cavalry wore the 1806 regulation uniform throughout the Peninsular War (1808-14). See Painting Guide for Spanish Cavalry

  • Haythornthwaite (1995) Figure 30a is an Officer from Del Rey in 1808.
  • Funcken (1973) Spain Cavalry Figure 1 is a trooper from Del Rey.
  • Lachouque et al (1982) Figure 11 (p. 17) is from Del Rey in 1808.

Question: Who were the Provisional de Santiago and what did they wear at Albuera?

Escuadron Provisional de Instruction (1 sqn)

New Formation

Battle Comment

Question: Who were the Escuadron Provisional de Instruction and what did they wear at Albuera?

Cavalry from 5th Army – under Lumley

Reales Carabineros de la Guardia

Part of the Royal Guard the Carabineers started the war split between Old Castile and Madrid (Oliver & Partridge, 1999).

Only 75 men were present at Albuera (Oliver & Partridge, 2007) so probably only a squadron.

Battle Comment
Medina de Rio Seco 2 Sqn
Medellín 1 Sqn
Talavera 2 Sqn
Gébora 250 men
Albuera (16 May 1811) Oliver and Partridge (2007) say 75 men

Goddard and Booth - Offizier der Karabiniers der Königin.jpg (119417 bytes)

Guard Carabineers

A print by Goddard and Booth has a print of an officer of the Carabineros de la Reina Cavalry c. 1809-11. Apparently the squadrons of the Reales Carabineros de la Guardia were divided into even smaller units (Chartrand, 1999a). Carabineros de la Reina Cavalry were one such unit of 150 men. The uniform has a blue coat with red collar, lapels and turnbacks, silver buttons, lace and unfringed epaulettes, a red waistcoat edged with silver lace, white breeches and gauntlets gloves, and black boots.

Lachouque et al (1982) Figure 8 (p. 18) is from the Royal Carabiniers.

Rgto de la Reina (Line Cavalry; 1 sqn)

Oliver and Partridge (2007) give the “Rgto de la Reyna” in the Spanish order of battle. I’m not sure if this is the Line Cavalry or Dragoon regiment. Either way it is an old regiment. Oliver and Partridge (1999) credit neither with the battle honour for Albuera but that might be because Oman (1996 Volume IV) just lump Lumley’s cavalry together and doesn’t specify the units.

When Oman doesn’t specify which regiment (Line Cavalry or Dragoon) Oliver and Partridge (2007) assume the Line Cavalry regiment so I’ll do the same when those authors don’t specify. In fact this is likely because Oliver and Partridge (1999) list the Line Cavalry regiment as part of 5th Army.

La Reina was one of the old Line Cavalry regiments. They were quite active during the war.

Battle Comment
Medina de Rio Seco 300 men in 2 Sqn
Zornoza 160 men in 2 Sqn
Ucles 276 men. Oliver and Partridge (1999) assume the Line Cavalry regiment because Oman doesn’t specify whether Line Cavalry or Dragoon.
Medellín
Talavera 500 men
Almonacid 183 men
Ocaña 300 men
Gébora 250 men
Albuera (16 May 1811) Suggested by Oliver and Partridge (2007) but not Oliver and Partridge (1999)
Saguntum 400 men

Officially the line cavalry wore the 1806 regulation uniform throughout the Peninsular War (1808-14). See Painting Guide for Spanish Cavalry.

Haythornthwaite (1995) Figure 28 b is an Officer from de la Reina in 1808.

From Dec 1814 they were equipped as cuirrasiers (Chartrand, 1999b). the uniform was a scarlet coat with blue collar cuffs and lapels, white buttonhole lace, pewter buttons, steel cuirasses and steel cuirassier helmet trimmed with brass, with black mane and red plume.

Chartrand (1999a) Figure D1 is a trooper of the Coraceros Espanoles in 1810-11. In fact his uniform is pretty similar to the description of La Reina’s cuirassier kit.

Rgto de Borbón (Line Cavalry; 1 sqn)

Oliver and Partridge (2007) give the “Rgto de la Bourbon” in the Spanish order of battle. I assume this is the old Borbón Line Cavalry regiment. This is plausible because Oliver and Partridge (1999) list Borbón as part of 5th Army.

Battle Comment
Bar 658 men
Bai 401 men
Tudela 200 men
Ucles 119 men
Tamames / Alba de Tormes 290 men
Gêbora 250 men
Albuera (16 May 1811) 135 men; 1 Sqn. Suggested by Oliver and Partridge (2007) but not Oliver and Partridge (1999)

Officially the line cavalry wore the 1806 regulation uniform throughout the Peninsular War (1808-14). See Painting Guide for Spanish Cavalry

In 1815 they wore a blue coat with white collar, cuffs and lapels, yellow buttonhole lace, brass buttons, blue cloak, and buff waistcoat and breeches (Chartrand, 1999b).

Rgto de Algarve (Line Cavalry; 1 sqn)

Oliver and Partridge (2007) give the “Rgto de la Algarbe” in the Spanish order of battle. I assume this is the old Algarve Line Cavalry regiment. This is plausible because Oliver and Partridge (1999) list Algarve as part of 5th Army.

Battle Comment
Gêbora 250 men
Albuera (16 May 1811) 101 men; 1 Sqn. Suggested by Oliver and Partridge (2007) but not Oliver and Partridge (1999)

Officially the line cavalry wore the 1806 regulation uniform throughout the Peninsular War (1808-14). See Painting Guide for Spanish Cavalry.

In 1815 the wore a scarlet coat with blck collar, cuffs and lapels, and brass buttons, scarlet cloak, and buff waistcoat and breeches (Chartrand, 1999b).

Rgto de Lusitania (Dragoons; 1 sqn)

Oliver and Partridge (2007) give the “Rgto de la Lusitania” in the Spanish order of battle. I assume this is the old Lusitania Dragoon regiment.

Battle Comment
Ucles 158 men
Gamonal 300 men
Ocaña 300 men
Gêbora 250 men
Albuera (16 May 1811) 88 men; 1 Sqn. Suggested by Oliver and Partridge (2007) but not Oliver and Partridge (1999)

The Spanish Dragoons adopted a yellow uniform in 1805 and wore it throughout the Peninsular War (1808-14). See Painting Guide for Spanish Cavalry.

In 1815 they wore a yellow coatee, waistcoat and breeches, black cuffs, pewter buttons (Chartrand, 1999b).

Note: Oliver and Partridge (1999) also list a separate 1o Dragones de Lusitania as a new formation. It was raised 25 Jun 1808 and absorbed by the Dragones de Reina and Villaviciosa 1 Jun 1811. They list no battle honours.

Húsares de Extremadura (1 sqn)

Oliver and Partridge (2007) give the “Húsares de Extremadura ” in the Spanish order of battle. There is some debate about the origin of this unit

  • Chartrand (1999a) says the Húsares de Maria Luisa were “amalgamated” to form 1o and 2o Húsares de Extremadura in 1808. The two units were then reunited as the Húsares de Extremadura. They were renamed Húsares de Bailén on 15 Jun 1815 (Chartrand 1999b). The uniform for the 1808 Húsares de Maria Luisa is basically the same as that of the 1815 Húsares de Extremadura.
  • Oman (1995 Volume II, p. 628) says “1st Hussars of Extremadura [late Maria Luisa]”. Oliver and Partridge (1999) interpret this as meaning the unit was renamed but it could also be explained by Chartrand’s suggestion that the two Húsares de Extremadura were formed from Maria Luisa.
  • Bueno (cited by Oliver & Partridge, 1999) says the Húsares de Extremadura was a new formation and latter renamed Hsares de Bailén.
  • Oliver and Partridge (1999) list Húsares de Maria Luisa and both 1o and 2o Húsares de Extremadura and note the confusion. They say the both Húsares de Extremadura regiments were raised 14 Jun 1808. 1o Húsares de Extremadura was part of 5th Army.

Unlike many of the new formations the Húsares de Extremadura were retained in the cavalry reorganisation of 6 Apr 1811 (Chartrand, 1999a). Unlike other old regular units the Húsares de Maria Luisa were left out of the new organisation which supports the view that they were the same unit.

Battle Maria Luisa 1st 2nd United Comment
Gamonal (10 Nov 1808) Yes 400 men
Medellín (28 Mar 1809) Yes 400 men
Talavera Yes Yes Each had 500 men
Ocaña Yes Yes Each had 300 men
Gébora (19 Feb 1811) Yes 250 men
Albuera (16 May 1811) Yes Suggested by Oliver and Partridge (2007) but not Oliver and Partridge (1999)

On balance I think the potted histor is the old Húsares de Maria Luisa unit that fought at Gamonal (10 Nov 1808) was used to form two new regiments: 1o and 2o Húsares de Extremadura. Later these were amalgamated into the Húsares de Extremadura, which was retained on the army list (6 Apr 1811), fought at Albuera, and was subsequently renamed to Húsares de Bailén (15 Jun 1815). That doesn’t explain all the data but it is plausible.


Goddard and Booth - Offizier des Husaren-Regiments 'Maria Luisa'.jpg (109937 bytes)

Maria Luisa
Hussars

A print by Goddard and Booth is also of an officer of the regiment c. 1809-1811. His jacket and breeches are sky blue, with red cuffs and piping at the collar, silver lace, a yellow sash with blue knots, a black cap with a red plume and silver cords, and dark red leather belts edged silver. The pelisse is buttoned up so can’t see the scarlet dolman.

Haythornthwaite (1995) Figure 29b is an Officer from the Húsares de Maria Luisa. He basically looks like the Goddar and Booth figure but his cap is more obviously a Mirliton. Like the Goddar and Booth figure the pelisse is buttons up over the scarlet dolman. Haythornthwaite mentions that the pelisse of officers lacked the black fur of the other ranks.

Chartrand (1998) Figure G2 is of the Húsares de Maria Luisa in the sky blue pelisse and breeches and showing the scarlet Dolman.

Funcken (1973) Spain Cavalry Figure 1 is of the Húsares de Maria Luisa and also shows the scarlet dolman.

In contrast Chartrand (1999a) has the main colours reversed. He describes the uniform of the Húsares de Maria Luisa as a sky blue doman, a scarlet pelisse and pantaloons, white pewter buttons, white cords, and emerald green housings edged white. I feel, however, the overwhelming weight of authority is with the alternative colour scheme. Given Chartrand (1998, and 1999b) both have the alternative this could even be a typo.

Item Goddard and Booth , Chartrand (1998, 1999b), Haythornthwaite (1995), Funcken (1973), Rafferty (1992) and Sapherson (1991) Chartrand (1999a)
Headgear Black Mirliton cap with red wing trimmed white, red (or white over red) plume, red cockade, white loop
Pelisse Sky Blue with red collar and cuff, and black fur trim scarlet
Dolman Scarlet with sky blue collar and cuff, white piping (Officers had silver braid) and buttons sky blue
Breeches Sky Blue trimmed white scarlet
Barrel Sash Red with red and white knots yellow sash with blue knots
Boots (or shoes+gaiters) Black
Straps and belts White
Sword Sheath
Cartridge Box Black
Shabraques Sky blue edged white Emerald green housings edged white
Horse harness Black

Cazadores de Sevilla (1 sqn)

Oliver and Partridge (1999) say it was a new unit raised 1 Jul 1808 and served with 5th Army but give no battle honours. It was retained in the 6 Apr 1811 reorganisation (Chartrand, 1999a), was absent from the 1 Dec 1814 list (Chartrand, 1999b), but Oliver and Partridge say it was sent overseas on 11 Jun 1815.

Battle Comment
Albuera (16 May 1811) Suggested by Oliver and Partridge (2007) but not Oliver and Partridge (1999)

Question: What did the Cazadores de Sevilla wear at Albuera?

Artillery

Both prints are from Goddard and Booth.

The single figure is an officer of the Royal Corps of Artillery c. 1809-11. He wears a round hat with a red plume and the brim upturned at the side, a blue coat with blue lapels and collar, red piping, cuffs and turnbacks, gold buttons and epaulettes, red waistcoat edged gold, and white breeches and black boots.

The left hand figure of the set of three is a Gunner of the Royal Corps of Artillery c. 1809-11. He wears a round hat with a red plume and the brim upturned in front, a blue coat with blue lapels, collar and turnbacks, red piping and cuffs, brass buttons, red waistcoat edged yellow, and grey trousers.

[The other two figures are a Fusiler of the Extremadura Line Infantry Regiment c. 1809-11 and a trooper of the Zamora Dragoon regiment c. 1811. The Dragoon is particularly interesting because his coat is white not the traditional yellow. The breeches and gloves appear to be buff.]


Goddard and Booth - Offizier der Artillerie.jpg (93373 bytes)

Artillery Officer
Goddard and Booth


Artilleryman, Fusilier, Dragoon
Goddard and Booth

References

Bunde, P. (2005). 1st Volunteers of Aragon. Wargames: Soldiers & Strategy, 9, 24-26. Revistas Professionales: Madrid, Spain.

Chartrand, R. (1998). Spanish Army of the Napoleonic Wars (1) 1793 – 1808. Osprey [MAA321]

Chartrand, R. (1999a). Spanish Army of the Napoleonic Wars (2) 1808 – 1812. Osprey [MAA332]

Chartrand, R. (1999b). Spanish Army of the Napoleonic Wars (3) 1812 – 1815. Osprey [MAA334]

Edwards, P. (2008). Albuera: Wellington’s Fourth Peninsular Campaign, 1811. The Crowwood Press.

Funcken, L. and F. (1973). The Napoleonic Wars (Part II). London: Ward Lock.

Haythornthwaite, P. (1995). Uniforms of the Peninsular Wars 1807 – 1814. London: Arms and Armour Press.

Kannik, P. (1968). Military Uniforms in Colour. London: Blandford.

Knotel, R., Knotel, H., and Sieg, H. (1980). Uniforms of the World: Army, Navy & Airforce Uniforms 1700-1937. New Orchard Editions.

Lachouque, H., Tranie, J., and Carmigniani, J. C. (1982). Napoleon’s War in Spain: The French Peninsular Campaigns, 1807-1814. Arms and Armour Press.

New York Public Library (NYPL): The Vinkhuijzen collection of military uniforms

Oliver, M. (2008). Private communication.

Oliver, M. and Partridge, R. (1999). Napoleonic Army Handbook: The British Army and her Allies. Constable.

Oliver, M. and Partridge, R. (2007). The Battle of Albuera – 1811: Glorious Field of Grief. Pen & Sword Military.

Oman, C. (1995). A History of the Peninsular War (Volume I): 1807-1809. London: Greenhill Books.

Oman, C. (1995). A History of the Peninsular War (Volume II): January-September 1809. London: Greenhill Books.

Oman, C. (1996). A History of the Peninsular War (Volume III): September 1809 to December 1810. London: Greenhill Books.

Oman, C. (1996). A History of the Peninsular War (Volume IV): December 1810 to December 1811. London: Greenhill Books.

Rafferty, J. (1992). Painting Guide to Napoleonics: Spain. Active Service Press.

Sapherson, C. A. (1991). Peninsular Armies 1808 – 1814. Leeds, UK: Raider Books.

Smith, D. (2006). An Illustrated Encyclopedia of Uniforms of the Napoleonic Wars. Lorenz Books.

Windrow, M, and Embleton, G.. (1974). Military Dress of the Peninsular War. Windrow & Greene.

Wise, T. (1984). Flags of the Napoleonic Wars (3): Colours, Standards and Guidons of Anhalt, Kleve-Berg, Brunswick, Denmark, Finland, Hanover, Hesse, The Netherlands, Mecklenburg, Nassau, Portugal, Reuss, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland & Westphalia [Men-at-Arms 115]. Osprey.

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