A sub-branch of the Umayyad family ruled Spain from 755 until 1030. These were the glory years for the Muslims in Spain. Although puppet Caliphs lingered on until 1031, the power of the Umayyad’s was broken by 1002 when the vizier Al-Mansur died.
Although raiders had crossed from Morocco for several years it was Tariq ibn Ziyad, in 711, that led the first major invasion force.
Samuel Ha-Nagid interests me because he was both a poet and a military leader. He is also unusual by being one of only two Jews to command Medieval Muslim armies (his son, Joseph, was the other).
A chronological list of Muslim rulers in Al-Andalus.
Arab fashions came and went, but there were certain patterns which applied across all Muslim lands: I give a general description then some specifics from certain regions.
A quick look at key bits of kit.
Some notes on the composition of the various armies.
Andalusian armies were composed of a number of elements. The proportion of these elements changed depending on the political situation, and particular armies would concentrate on some and not others.
Included black slaves, Murabitun deserters, and elite Ghuzz Turkish archers (Nicolle, 1988). Almohads made even more use of war drums than the Murabitun. Almohad infantry formed similarly to the Murabitun: a front rank with long spears, a second with javelins and spears and a third of slingers.
From Barber (1978) pg 87-89.