Portugal was in Africa long before the other European powers but had to struggle to maintain its place during the Scramble for Africa. Portugal’s claimed sovereignty over the land between Angola and Mozambique, now including Zambia, Zimbabwe and Malawi (Wikipedia: Pink Map). This claim was embodied in the ‘Pink Map’ (Portuguese: Mapa cor-de-rosa). Unfortunately the Pink Map conflicted with the British “Cape to Cairo Red Line”.
Timeline Portuguese Angola 1884 – 1917
The first map is a version of the Portuguese ‘Pink Map’.
What that map doesn’t show is where the other Imperial powers were. The next map does show the other Imperial powers scrambling for Africa. Ironically, the British territories are shown in “Pink” – the “Cape to Cairo Red Line”. Portuguese territories are in purple. You can see the obvious conflict between the British and Portuguese – the “Cape to Cairo Red Line” runs right between Angola and Mozambique.
Map of colonial Africa as in 1913, with modern borders
Colonial Africa 1913 map)
Of course all of this was happening in the wider context of colonisation.