Portuguese Order of Battle during the First Carlist War

Portuguese fought for both sides during the the First Carlist War.

For the order of battle of the Portuguese regular army see Portuguese Army, 1834.

Portuguese Auxiliary Division in Spain, 1835-37

When Don Carlos arrived back in Spain in 1835 the Portuguese Liberals felt obligated to fulfil the obligations of the Quadruple Alliance, and return the favour to the Spanish Liberals for their help during the recent Liberal War in Portugal (Vieira, 2004). As a result a Portuguese Auxiliary Corps was sent to Spain to fight the Carlists (Viriatus Miniatures: Divisão Auxiliar a Espanha). This three brigade force contained 6,000 foot and 750 horse when it entered Spain in Nov 1835 (Cairns, 1994b; Viriatus Miniatures: Divisão Auxiliar a Espanha; Duncan, 1997, says they had 8,000 men). The force was recruited from the best regular units, although one unit, the “Caçadores do Porto”, was said to have been made up of adventurers of all nations left over from Portugal’s recent civil war. Included at least one regiment of well-equipped lancers. The first Portuguese forces to enter Spain had the title of Vanguard of the Auxiliary Corp, although they became the 3rd Brigade when the rest of the expedition arrived.

Note Viriatus Miniatures: Divisão Auxiliar a Espanha refers to this force as both “Corpo do Exército Auxiliar a Espanha” and “Divisão Auxiliar a Espanha“, i.e. as both an Army Corps and a Division. Although larger than a division, that is the title most other sources use. .

Details below from Viriatus Miniatures: Divisão Auxiliar a Espanha.

Organisation from 26 Nov 1835 to 1 Feb 1836

Commander: After entry into Spain Baron de Santa Marta

1st Brigade

Commander: Initially Lt-Colonel Filipe Marceley Pereira (from 3rd Infantry Regiment), then upon entry into Spain the command passed to the Colonel José de Sousa Pimentel e Faria (from 9th Infantry Regiment ).

1st Battery of Mountain Artillery (Captain é Maria Pereira Velho Barreto)

1 x Detachment of the Battalion of Sappers

1st Battalion of 3rd Light Infantry (Caçadores) Regiment (Colonel Manuel Eleutério Malheiro)

1st Battalion of 3rd Infantry Regiment (Lt-Colonel Filipe Marceley Pereira)

2nd Brigade

Commander: Initially Baron de Santa Maria until the Corps entered Spain and de Santa Maria became C-in-C, then Colonel Manuel Jose Mendes (from 10th Infantry Regiment)

1 x Detachment of the Battalion of Sappers

1 x Battery of Horse Artillery (Captain Germano Da Cruz Alzina)

2 x Squadrons of 2nd Lancers (Captain D. Carlos de Mascarenhas)

1st Battalion of 1st Infantry Regiment (Lt-Colonel António Pimentel Maldonado)

1st Battalion of 10th Infantry Regiment (Colonel Manuel Jose Mendes)

3rd Brigade (The original Vanguard of the Auxiliary Corps)

Commander: Baron das Antas

1 x Detachment of the Battalion of Sappers

1st Battalion of 4th Light Infantry (Caçadores) Regiment (Lt-Colonel Jose Joaquin Gomes Fontoura)

1st Battalion of 9th Infantry Regiment (Major Luís Guedes de Morais)

1st Battalion of 6th Infantry Regiment (Lt-Colonel Jose Teixeira Mesquita)

2 x Squadrons of 3rd Cavalry Regiment (Colonel José Osório do Amaral Sarmento)

Organisation from 2 Feb 1836

In Feb 1836 the Portuguese were reorganised into two columns (Viriatus Miniatures: Diviso
Auxiliar a Espanha

1st Column (Brigadier General Baron Das Antas) – 3,000 men according to
Portugal Dicionário
Histórico: Antas

3rd Cavalry

4th Light Infantry (Caçadores)

3rd, 6th and 10th Line Infantry

2nd Column (Colonel José de Sousa Pimentel e Faria)

2nd Lancers

2nd Light Infantry (Caçadores)

1st and 9th Line Infantry

Brigada Auxiliar Portuguesa

The Brigada Auxiliar Portuguesa fought for the Spanish government in Catalonia (Nuno Pereira, private communication). It was nothing to do with the Portuguese Auxiliary Division. It contained:

Grenadiers of Oporto (Granaderos de Oporto). Made up of English, Portuguese and Spanish volunteers. recruited during the Portuguese Civil War. It was commanded by the English brigadier Dodgin until his death at the Battle of Grá (12 Jun 1837).

Portuguese Carlists

After losing the Liberal Wars the exiled Portuguese Absolutists wanted to continue the fight for what they believed in and supported by their leader, Don Miguel, joined Don Carlos forces (Vieira, 2004). This way, many Portuguese came from Portugal (where Absolutist guerrillas were still active), England, France and Italy to join the Carlist ranks. The Portuguese in the Carlist Army even formed a Company commanded by the captain António Teles Jordão. Besides many soldiers there were also several Portuguese officers loyal to D. Miguel in the Carlist Army.


Cairns, C. (1994b, November). A Savage and Romantic War: Spain 1833-1840. Part II: The Cristino forces. Wargames Illustrated, 86, 36-46.

Do Livro Do Coronel Hugh Owen [Portuguese]

Duncan, F. (1997). The English in Spain: The story of the War of Succession between 1834 and 1840 (Vols. 1-6). UK: Pallas Armata. (Original work published 1877.)

Livermore, H. V. (1966). A New History of Portugal. Cambridge University Press.

Lovell Badcock, B. (1835). Rough ( leaves from a journal kept in Spain and Portugal, during the years 1832, 1833, & 1834. London: R. Bentley. [On-line http://www.archive.org/details/roughleavesfromj00loverich]

Relatório do Ministro da Guerra, 1828-34 [Portuguese]

Vieira, J. (18 Jun 2004). Personal communication.

Viriatus Miniatures [Portuguese]

Thanks to Nuno Pereira for bringing this material to my attention. The relevant pages are:

Divisão Auxiliar a Espanha – 1835 – 1837 – 1ª Guerra Carlista

Organização da Infantaria – 1834

Organização da Cavalaria – 1834

Os Uniformes de 1834 III: Regimentos de

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