This covers the Iberians (inc Balearic), Celtiberian and Lusitani. Check out my Field of Glory Ancient Spanish Army for more photos.
White base with scarlet* decoration (national dress for all Spanish). For decorations see illustrations; minimum =strip around collar, cuffs, hem.
A few of the rich Iberians (like Generals) in red tunics with white trim
Celtiberians and Lusitani: I aimed for at most 1 in 12 tunics being black; rest are the normal white with red trim.
Polybius says Purple, but there are four problems with this:
|Shield|| Shield Face: Bright and patterned. Lots of variety. See illustrations for patterns.
Edge of oval shield + boss: Iron
Note: Celtiberians/Lusitani would use both Iberian and Gallic shield patterns. Possibly evenly distributed.
|Helmet|| Bowl if sinew (common): White* <== important
Bowl if metal: Bronze
Crest: Red, black, or white
* My sinew helmets are white ’cause that is what I thought they would have been at the time I painted them army, but people in general paint them anywhere from off-white to light brown.
|Body Armour|| Mail: Iron
Scale: Iron or Bronze
one or more, square or round plates: Bronze including shoulder straps
|Greaves (leg guard)||Bronze|
|Hair (their own)||Black or dark brown|
|Belt|| Base material: Leather
Fittings including plaques: Bronze, gold or silver
|Sandals/boots + straps|| Base material: Leather
|Sword and dagger|| Handle: Ivory or wood or iron
Scabbard: Wood or leather with bronze fittings, or entirely iron
Blade: Steel; a few Lusitani with Bronze
|Javelin, pilum, spear|| Haft: Wood
Shaft + Blade: Steel; a few Lusitani with Bronze
|Standard|| Emblem: Silver or bronze
|Instruments||Bronze or baked clay|
|Cloak|| Note: Rich (officers, cavalry) are more likely to vary
Black is common, plus a few with:
Iberian Slingers – Showing White tunics with red trim and shield patterns for small shields
Iberian Scutarii – Showing range of shield patterns plus sinew and metal helmets
More Iberian Scutarii
Celtiberian Scutarii – Showing Celtiberian Cloaks
Cavalry would be as the infantry but with richer costumes.
The horse: As you would expect, but Spain was famous for Duns (hence common).
The trappings: Steel, bronze, or silver fittings. Bright colours on straps, saddle, etc.
Iberian Large Shield Cavalry
Iberian Small Shield Cavalry
Iberian Generals – Show Iberian cloaks and Red tunics for Rich guys
Celtiberians and Lusitani wore largely the same costume as the Iberians but with some occasional differences. These are the proportions I aimed for:
- At most 1 in 12 tunics are black; rest are the normal white with red trim.
- 1 in 3 of cloaks have Gallic patterns (stripes or checks); rest are black.
- Shield patterns are evenly mixed, Iberian and Gallic.
Head, D. (1982). Armies of the Macedonian and Punic wars 359 BC to 146 BC. Wargames Research Group.
Treviño, R. (1986). Rome’s Enemies (4): Spanish Armies 218 BC – 19 BC. Osprey.