Terry Hooker’s Uniforms of the South American Wars of Liberation

Terry Hooker, author of a book on San Martin and Bolivar, has been publishing his illustrations on Face Book. Each has a comprehensive description and I thought I’d put the descriptions here so I can find the illustrations easier.

INTEL A4 – 61, Viceroyalty of the Rio de la Plata: Officer – Volunteer Hussar of the City of Montevideo, 1806, this uniform/unit could be confused with the unit “Husares de Mordeil para Mar y Tierra” that was raised by Hipolito Mordeille, their uniform details are; “Uniformados de azul claro con vivos y alamares amarillos para la tropa y oro los oficiales”. Illustration by Jose Balaguer in my collection.

INTEL A4 – 60, Viceroyalty of the Rio de la Plata: Legion of Sobremonte, Dragoon 1807, illustration by Jose Balaguer sent to me by him for my collection.

INTEL A4 – 59, Viceroyalty of the Rio de la Plata: Buenos Aires 1807, Trooper 4th Squadron of Hussars, this unit became beter known as the “Cazadores de la Reina”, illustration by Jose Balaguer in my collection.

INTEL A4 – 58, Viceroyalty of the Rio de la Plata: Buenos Aires 1807, 1st Squadron of Volunteer Hussars, sometimes called the 1st Pueyrredon Hussars after the name of their commander Juan Martin de Pueyrredon, it was composed of 3 companies with 50 men in each, illustration by Jose Balaguer in my collection.

INTEL A4 – 57, Viceroyalty of the Rio de la Plata: Buenos Aires 1806, Officer, Volunteer Battalion Catalanes (Infanteria Ligera de Urbanos Voluntarios de Cataluna) composed from men born in Spain (Catalan, Valencia, Aragon and the Balearic Islands) in 8 Companies with 65 men in each, illustration by Jose Balaguer in my collection.

INTEL A4 – 56, Viceroyalty of the Rio de la Plata: Buenos Aires 1806, Officer and Gunner Volunteer Artillery (Artilleros Voluntarios Patriotas de la Union), created 8th October 1806 with a total opf 455 all ranks, the “Union” comes from the fact that it contained men born in Spain and America serving in the same unit. Illustration by Jose Balaguer 1970’s in my collection.

INTEL A4 – 54, Viceroyalty of the Rio de la Plata: Buenos Aires 1806-7, Private, Volunteer Company Cazadores Correntino, illustration by Jose Balaguer and sent to me in the 1970’s.

INTEL A4 – 53, Viceroyalty of the Rio de la Plata: Officer Volunteer Light Infantry Company of Correntinos 1806 ( Oficial de Cazadores Correntinos), illustration by Jose Balaguer that was sent to me by him in the 1970’s.

INTEL A4 – 52, Viceroyalty of the Rio de la Plata: Volunteer Battalion Arribenos 1807, illustration by Jose Balaguer that was sent to me by him in the 1970’s, see text in the A4 document.

INTEL A4 – 51, Viceroyalty of the Rio de la Plata 1807: Officer & Private, Volunteer Battalion Andaluces (Batallon de los Cuatro Reynos de Andalucia), illustration by Jose Balaguer and sent to me in the 1970’s.

INTEL A4 – 50, Viceroyalty of the Rio de la Plata 1807: Buenos Aires, A.D.C. (Ayundante de Campo) during the British Invavasions of that region, illustration by Jose Balaguer that was sent to me by Jose during the 1970’s.

INTEL A4 – 49, Viceroyalty of the Rio de la Plata 1807, Buenos Aires: Colonel of the General Staff ( Coronel de Estado Mayor), illustration by Jose Balaguer sent to me by Jose in the 1970’s.

INTEL A4 – 30, Viceroyalty of the Rio de la Plata 1796, Asamblea de Caballeria, Buenos Aires, Dragoon, illustration by Jorge H. Fernandez Rivas 1970, who sent me this plate at that time.

UNIFORME DEL REGIMIENTO DE GRANADEROS A CABALLO (1818) Creado a partir la firma del Decreto del Primer Triunvirato para la organización del 1er. Escuadrón, el 16 de marzo de 1812. Su fundador y primer Jefe fue el Teniente Coronel José de San Martín. Altamente disciplinado, el regimiento fue instruido con las modernas técnicas profesionales de la guerra europea. San Martín seleccionó e instruyó personalmente al 1er. Escuadrón de Granaderos y simultáneamente formó cadetes y oficiales en una Academia interna, sellándoles un particular espíritu de cuerpo. En el año 1817 se mantenía el uniforme de pantalones a la sajona y zapatos a la rusa

INTEL A4 – 48, Viceroyalty of the Rio de la Plata 1808, Grenadier Battalion Fernando VII, see note for this illustration in the issue text, illustration by Jose Balaguer and sent to me for my researches.

INTEL A4 – 29, Viceroyalty of the Rio de la Plata 1785, Dragoon, Asamblea de Caballeria, Buenos Aires, illustration by Jorge H. Fernandez Rivas 1970, that was sent to me by him in the 1970’s.

INTEL A3 – 46, Viceroyalty of the Rio de la Plata 1779, Dragon of the Cobos Fort, illustration by Jose Balaguer who sent me it in the 1970’s.

INTEL A3 – 54, Viceroyalty of the Rio de la Plata, 1795, Artillery Gunner, illustration by Jose Balaguer, dated 1966, sent to me in the 1970’s.

INTEL A3 – 53, Viceroyalty of the Rio de la Plata, 1744, Grenadier from the Provincial Voluntarios del Valle y Rioja, illustration by Jose Balaguer, sent to me in the 1970’s

INTEL A3 – 52, Viceroyalty of the Rio de la Plata, 1790, Grenadier from the Brigade of Free Pardos of Cordoba, illustration by Jose Balaguer, sent to me in the 1970’s.

INTEL A3 – 52, Viceroyalty of the Rio de la Plata, 1790, Grenadier from the Brigade of Free Pardos of Cordoba, illustration by Jose Balaguer, sent to me in the 1970’s.

INTEL A3 – 50, Viceroyalty of the Rio de la Plata, 1782, Infantry of Lampa, illustration by Jose Balaguer, sent to me in the 1970’s.

INTEL A3 – 49, Viceroyalty of the Rio de la Plata, 1775, Asamblea de Infanteria”, illustration by Jose Balaguer, sent to me in the 1970’s. Guillermo Brocchini wrote: The “Asambleas” were specially designated groups of officers and sergeants from the Spanish Regular Army, who were intended solely to educate and train the Colonial Militia units. As such they were released from any other military service.

INTEL A3 – 48, Viceroyalty of the Rio de la Plata, 1791, Infantry Standard of the Regiment “Fijo de Buenos Aires”, illustration by Jose Balaguer, sent to me in the 1970’s. Notice the coat of arms of the city of Buenos Aires.

INTEL A3 – 47, Trooper Cavalry Regiment of San Fernando 1778, illustration by Jose Balaguer, sent to me in the 1970’s. I believe that this is situated in the Viceroyalty of the Rio de la Plata.

INTEL A3 – 45, Captaincy General of Chile, 1790, Colour Bearer Cavalry Regiment “Concepcion”, illustration by Jose Balaguer dated 1973, he sent me the plate in the 1970’s. ( initially I had wrongly named the area from where this unit came from, thanks to Guillermo Brocchini it is now correct, many thanks Guillermo. TDH )Guillermo Brocchini also included: In the old Spanish army, the name of the units were given by where was the headquarters of the Regiment/Battalion’s Headquarters was based. The “Concepcion” cavalry unit was situated in a southern city of modern day Chile, I believe that one of their standards is deposited in the Museum of Milititary History in Santiago de Chile. Guillermo Brocchini also included: In the old Spanish army, the name of the units were given by where was the headquarters of the Regiment/Battalion’s Headquarters was based. The “Concepcion” cavalry unit was situated in a southern city of modern day Chile, I believe that one of their standards is deposited in the Museum of Milititary History in Santiago de Chile.Guillermo Brocchini continued: The 2nd Battalion carried a standartd with the Cross of Burgundy in the centre and at the ends of each arm, at the corners, were also the coat of arms of the H.Q. City. These regulations were still in force in 1818 for the Royalist troops in South America. Guillermo Brocchini continued: The 2nd Battalion carried a standartd with the Cross of Burgundy in the centre and at the ends of each arm, at the corners, were also the coat of arms of the H.Q. City. These regulations were still in force in 1818 for the Royalist troops in South America.

INTEL A3 – 44, Viceroyalty of the Rio de la Plata 1776, Dragon de Buenos Aires, illustration by Jose Balaguer dated 1972, he sent it to me in the 1970’s.

INTEL A3 – 43, Viceroyalty of Rio de la Plata, 1790 – Blandengue de Frontera, illustation by Jose Balaguer dated 1968, sent to me by Jose (Pepe) in the 1970’s.

Viceroyalty of the Rio de la Plata 1806 – 1807 – British Invasions: Trooper Cuerpo de Quinteros y Labradores, composed of 2 squadrons with a total of 332 men, although these troops wore a uniform their fighting and riding style had the characteristics of the plains Gauchos, plus the long lance. Illustration by Jose Luis Salinas 1970.

Viceroyalty of the Rio de la Plata 1806 – 1807 – British Invasions: Officer Migueletes de Castex 1807, named after its commander Alejos Castex, this was the 6th squadron of Volunteer light cavarly raised during these events, it was designated to be the mounted escort to Santiago Liniers the commander of the opposing forces to the British. This is a contemporary illustration from the defence of Buenos Aires by Dr. Enrique W. Alzaga

Viceroyalty of the Rio de la Plata 1806 – 1807 – British Invasions: Trooper Carabineros de Carlos II, this squadron comprised of 190 men in total, commanded by Lucas Fernandez who also financed the cost of the uniforms, equipment and mounts for these troops. These were the 5th Squadron of Volunteer light cavalry. Illustration by Jose Luis Salinas 1970.

Viceroyalty of the Rio de la Plata 1806 – 1807 – British Invasions: Trooper 4th Hussar Squadron , raised in November 1806, initially called Carabineros de Herrera after its commander Diego de Herrera, it later become known as the Cazadores de la Reina, seeing combat at Perdriel 1806, and at Quilmes y Barrancas in 1807. Illustration by Jose Luis Salinas 1970’s.

Viceroyalty of the Rio de la Plata 1806 – 1807 – British Invasions: Officer (Captain) 3rd Hussar Squadron – Husares de Nunez 1807, named after its commander Pedro Ramon Nunez, the squadron was composed of 181 men, this unit took part in the combat of Perdriel in 1806.

Viceroyalty of the Rio de la Plata 1806 – 1807 – British Invasions: Trooper 2nd Hussar Squadron – Husares de Vivas. Illustration by Jose Luis Salinas 1970’s.

Viceroyalty of the Rio de la Plata 1806 – 1807 – British Invasions: Officer 2nd Hussar Squadron – Husares de Vivas 1807, named from its commanded Lucas Vivas, this unit was also known as “Husares Infernales”, the squadron contained 186 men. Illustration by Jose Luis Salinas 1970.

Viceroyalty of the Rio de la Plata 1806 – 1807 – British Invasions: Officer 1st Squadron of Hussars – Husares de Pueyrredon 1807, named after their commander Juan Martin de Pueyrredon, initially named “Husars del Rey”, this commander organised and financed the clothing and equipment of this squadron. The squadron was composed of 203 men, while there was also 4 companies on infantry with 51 men per company.

Viceroyalty of the Rio de la Plata 1806 – 1807 – British Invasions: Officer Voluntarios Pardos of the Batallon de Castas 1807, composed of 9 companies with a total of 540 men, these were of negro origin, slavery was not allowed in Spanish Colonial America.

Viceroyalty of the Rio de la Plata 1806 – 1807 – British Invasions: Private Voluntarios Morenos, of the Batallon de Castas 1807, the Morenos were men of mixed blood / mulatos. Illustration by Jose Luis Salinas 1970.

Viceroyalty of the Rio de la Plata 1806 – 1807 – British Invasions: Officer Voluntarios Morenos of the Batallon de Castas 1807, composed of 8 companies with 480 men, commanded by Francisco Javier de Elio. Illustration by Jose Luis Salinas 1971.

Viceroyalty of the Rio de la Plata 1806 – 1807 British Invasions: Officer Voluntarios Naturales 1807, this unit was composed of native indians who lived in Buenos Aires, with a total of 240 men in 4 companies. This unit was part of the Batallon de Castas which had a total of 21 companies, 4 Naturales, 8 Morenos & 9 Pardos. Raised in 1806 (September) under the command of Francisco Aqustini.

Viceroyalty of the Rio de la Plata 1806 – 1807 – British Invasions: Officer Minones de Cataluna 1807, commanded by Olaguer Reynals, and composed of 8 companies each with 65 men, with a total of 583 all ranks, originally organised by Jaime Nadal y Guarda. These troops were recruited from men who originated from Catalan and lived in Buenos Aires. Illustration bu Jose Luis Salinas 1971.

Viceroyalty of the Rio de la Plata 1806 – 1807 – British Invasions: Private Cazadores Correntinos 1807, composed of 1 company with 84 men, was part of the Tercio de Vizcainos, these 8 companies fought together at the Corrales de Miserere in 1807. Illustration by Jose Luis Salinas 1970.

Viceroyalty of the Rio de la Plata 1806 – 1807 – British Invasions: Officer Tercio de Vizcainos 1807, this unit was raised on 18th september 1806, it contained 8 companies with a total of 446 men, 5 companies were of this uniform and made from men of vizcainos y navarros origin, 2 companies were designated as Asturianos because of their origin, and the last was named Cazadores Correntinos, again from their origin.

Viceroyalty of the Rio de la Plata 1806 – 1807 – British Invasions: Officer Voluntarios Asturianos, it was composed of 2 companies under the command of Prudencio Murguiondo. This unit was part of the Tercio de Vizcainos which was composed of 8 companies. It fought at the Corrales de Miserere in 1807 with the other companies of this unit.

Viceroyalty of the Rio de la Plata 1806 – 1807 – British Invasions: Private Battalion Montaneses, 1807, it was composed of 231 men in 4 companies, it was commanded by Lt. Colonel Pedro Andres Garcia, its founder being Jose de la Oyuela. This unit fought in La Defensa 1807 at the church of Santo Domingo. Plate by Jose Luis Salinas 1970.

Viceroyalty of the Rio de la Plata 1806 – 1807 – British Invasion: Private of the Legion Patricia, created on the 18th September 1806, this unit contained 1,328 men with 85 officers, being formed into 3 Battalions, these were commanded by Lt. Colonels Cornelio Saavedra, Esteban Romero and Jose Domingo Urien y Basavilbaso. Although these troops fought in “La Defensa” 1807 of Buenos Aires they later took part in many of the early battles for and after Independence.

Viceroyalty of the Rio de la Plata 1806 – 1807 – British Invasion: Officer, Real Maestranza de Artilleria 1807, composed of a Squadron with three companies with a total of 221 men. This plate is by Jose Luis Salinas and was produced in 1970.

Viceroyalty of the Rio de la Plata 1806 – 1807 – British Invasion: Officer, Artilleros Provinciales 1807, plate by Jose Luis Salinas 1970. this unit was composed of 100 men commanded by Jose Maria Pizarro.

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