This review of warfare focuses on south central Africa, from what is Angola (west central Africa) today to Mozambique (south-east Africa). This area is what the Portuguese referred to as a the Pink Map during the Scramble for Africa although I do a small diversion to Ethiopia. The review is not complete but I figured I should publish it as is and refine over time. This is the period before the Scramble for Africa, the early period of the Portuguese explorers – the period some historians call Medieval Africa.
Patterns of warfare were different in Africa. Roland Oliver and Anthony Atmore (2001) claim the term “Medieval Africa” covers the period 1250-1800. So starting later and ending later than in Europe.