A Portuguese fleet of 13 ships commanded by Pero Alveres Cabral arrived on the coast of southern Brazil on 22 April 1500.
Tupi or Tupaia (1200-1750) for New World DBA, my New World variant of DBA. Based on DBM IV/29 and DBR III/6. This list covers the coastal tribes of Brazil before until subjugated by the Portuguese. The Tupi were aggressive and warlike cannibals that invaded the Brazilian coast just before the Portuguese arrived. They called their non-Tupi speaking predecessors “Tupaia”, although this actually covered a wide range of languages and groups. The largest Tupaia group were the Gé-speaking tribes only some of whom were cannibals (Waitacá, Aimoré). The coastal Indians fought amongst themselves until the Portuguese arrived, then fought both amongst themselves and against the Portuguese. Indian tactics were simple and effective; after an initial barrage of arrows the entire club wielding mass charged “like bulls”. The Aimoré were unusual in that they had a preference for shooting from ambush then dashing away; this practice also explains the name given to them by their enemies – Aimoré being a Tupi word for “evil people” or “killers”.
Zimba (1494-1590) army list for New World DBA, my New World variant of DBA. Based on DBR III/8. The Zimba were of several east African pagan peoples, the Zimba were cannibals first encountered by Europeans as they emerged from the African interior and attacked the coastal inhabitants. Zimba warriors carried bows, poisoned arrows and fire-hardened wooden spears and small wooden shields. They captured Mombsa in alliance with the Portuguese in 1589, but were destroyed by the Segeju in 1590.
West African Forest Peoples (1494-1700) army list for New World DBA, my New World variant of DBA. Based on DBR III/7. Covers the Kingdoms of Ashanti, Yoruba, Benin, Ngola, Kongo (Christian from 1490), Dahomey from1600, and the Jaga (Cannibal). The west Africans favoured ambushes from their native woods, leading Europeans to a unfavourable assessment of their warlike spirit. The most common equipment were javelins, short sword, and a large light shield. After 1658 cheap flintlocks called “Dane guns” were used for skirmishing. Kongo armies, being Christian, carried flags emblazoned with crosses. Dahomey fielded amazons. The Jaga attacked Kongo in 1568-73 and were then defeated by the Portuguese. Kongo fell to the Portuguese in 1665.
Monomotapa (1494-1700) army list for New World DBA, my New World variant of DBA. Based on DBR III/8. One of several east African pagan peoples, the Momomotapa Kingdom was in the area of modern Zimbabwe. Of the Shona they were warlike, great traders, and built large stone city complexes. The warriors had spears or bows with iron arrowheads. Nobles wore skins with long tails and gold decorated wooden scabbards. The Momomotapa had a variety of vassal states. Some of the vassal states fell to Portuguese adventurers.
The Tupi called all non-Tupi Tapuia, meaning “people of a strange tongue”, “enemies” or “westerners” (Heath, 2001). As a cultural differentiator it isn’t very useful as it includes at least 76 distinct tribes and six language groups.
The Timeline has been divided into general periods:
An annotated bibliography for Colonial Brazil.