Order of Battle for Viluma / Sipe Sipe 1815

I’m wondering how to adapt my 1817-18 armies to earlier periods, specifically the Battle of Sipe Sipe / Viluma (28-29 Nov 1815). I’ve used Fletcher (2005) as a base and embellished with details from Pedrazzolli (2009, 2011).

Setting: Between Viluma and Sipe Sipe, Upper Peru; 28-29 Nov 1815

Secondary and Tertiary Sources

My main sources are Fletcher (2005) and Pedrazzolli (2009, 2011). These are very much tertiary sources as they are themselves based on secondary works in Spanish. John Fletcher has told me his order of battle is based on that within “Historia de la Nacion Argentina” (Levene, 1947). Pedrazzolli (2009) appears to have based his order of battle on the more recent “Historia y Campañas del Ejercito Realista” by (Luqui-Lagleyze, 1997). Unfortunately, I don’t have either of the Spanish texts so have to rely on the tertiary sources in English.

As is usual the sources disagree on the detail. I’ve used Fletcher as a base and embellished with details from Pedrazzolli.

I’ll factor in Borotti (n.d.) when I get time.


Patriot Order of Battle – Sipe Sipe / Viluma

  • Commander-in-Chief: Brigadier General Jose Rondeau
  • Right (Major General Fernandez de la Cruz)
    • Infantry
      • 1st Infantry Regiment (Col. Forest): 675 men
      • 9th Infantry Regiment (Col. Pagola): 337 men
      • Cazadore Battalion (Sergeant Major Alvarado): 383 men 1
    • Cavalry
      • Granaderos a Caballos (Col. Rojas): 286 men in 2 Squadrons
    • Artillery 2
      • 1 x Battery: 4x4lbrs
      • 1 x Section: 2x2lbrs
  • Left (Col. Zelaya)
    • Infantry
      • 7th Infantry Regiment (Col. Vidal): 664 men 4
      • 12th Infantry Regiment (Lt. Col. de la Riva)
        • 1st Battalion: 400 men
        • 2nd Battalion: 400 men
    • Cavalry
      • Peru Dragoons (Col. Balcarce): 337 men in 2 Squadrons
    • Artillery
      • 1 x Battery: 4x4lbrs 2
  • Reserve (3)
    • Infantry: 6th (Pardos & Morenos) Infantry Regiment (Col. Zelada): 282 men 4
    • Artillery: One cannon


(1) Fletcher (2005) includes the Patriot Cazadore Regiment but the order of battle in Pedrazzoli (2009) does not. Pedrazzoli, however, does mention the Cazadore Battalion in the text as skirmishing under Zelaya in the period 26-29 Nov 1815 and has a section specifically on the unit.

(2) Fletcher (2005) splits the Patriot artillery between the left (4x4lbrs; 2x2lbrs) and right (4x4lbrs). Pedrazzoli (2009) has all the artillery on the Left (1×7 inch mortar, 2×2 lbrs cannon, 4×4 lbrs cannon, and 3×4 lbr mountain guns) and reserve (one cannon). Notice that Pedrozzoli has one more tube (probably the mortar) than Fletcher.

(3) Pedrazzoli (2009) splits the Patriot 6th Regiment out as a Reserve whereas Fletcher (2005) includes them on the Left.

(4) Two Patriot units were black: 6th (Pardos & Morenos) Infantry Regiment and 7th Infantry Regiment.


Royalist Order of Battle – Sipe Sipe / Viluma (28-29 Nov 1815)

  • Commander-in-Chief: Brigadier General Joaquin de la Pezuela1
  • Right (Field Marshal Ramirez)
    • Infantry
      • 1st Infantry Regiment
        • 1st Battalion: 300 men
        • 2nd Battalion: 300 men
      • Voluntarios de Castro Battalion (Lt. Col. Ballesteros): 750 men
      • Partiddario Infantry Battalion 3: 450 men
      • Dismounted Cavalry 4
    • Cavalry
      • San Carlos Dragoons: 100 men in 1 Squadron
      • Cazadores a Caballo
        • 1st Squadron: 100 men
      • Cochabamba Dragoons 4
    • Artillery
      • 2 x Batteries
        • 4x4lbrs 5
  • Centre (Brigadier General Joaquin de la Pezuela1)
    • Infantry
      • 3rd Infantry Regiment / Centre Battalion (300) 6
    • Artillery
      • 2 x Batteries
        • 4x4lbrs
        • 2x2lbrs
  • Left (Brigadier General Tacon)
    • Infantry
      • 2nd Infantry Regiment
        • 1st Battalion: 300 men
        • 2nd Battalion: 300 men
      • Fernando VII Battalion: 300 men
      • Cazadore Battalion: 400 men
    • Cavalry
      • Cazadores a Caballo
        • 2nd Squadron (Lt. Col. Marquiegui): 100 men
    • Artillery
      • 2 x Batteries
        • 6 or 7x4lbrs 7
  • Reserve
    • Infantry
      • 4th Infantry Regiment / Reserve Grenadier Infantry Battalion: 200 men (8)
    • Cavalry
      • Guardia del General Cavalry (Lt. Col. Olarria): 50 men in 1 Company
    • Artillery: 1 x Battery: 6x4lbrs


(1) Brigadier General Joaquin de la Pezuela was the Royalist commander in chief and also commanded the Royalist centre.

(3) “Partiddario” means supporter or loyalist.

(4) Pedrazzoli (2009) includes the dismounted cavalry and Cochabamba Dragoons in the Royalist Right but Fletcher (2005) doesn’t mention them.

(5) Fletcher (2005) has a total of 8x 4lbrs on the Royalist Left but Pedrazzoli (2009) only has 4×4 lbrs guns.

(6) Fletcher (2005) calls them the Royalist “Center Battalion” but Pedrazzoli (2009) the “General’s Battalion”. Pedrazzoli (2011) mentions that the 3rd Infantry Regiment was also called the “Center Battalion”. Pedrazzoli also mentions that in 1815 they had four cazadore companies and one of “volteadores” (sharp shooters); curiously the picture he includes only shows for this unit only has two fusiliers.

(7) Fletcher (2005) gives 6x4lbrs whereas Pedrazzoli (2009) says 7×4 lbrs guns.

(8) Pedrazzoli (2009) mentions both the “Reserve Grenadiers” and “Grenadier Company of the General’s Battalion” which I assume are both included in Fletcher’s (2005) “Reserve Grenadier Infantry Battalion”. Pedrazzoli (2011) mentions the “Reserve Grenadiers” were also called the 4th Infantry Battalion and was formed from men of Cuzco.

Further Commentary

Pedrazzoli (2009) refers to the size of the cannon in inches but meant pounds. This was a translation error so a “4 inch gun” was meant to be “4 pounder gun”.


Borotti, J. A. (n.d.). Batalla de Sipe Sipe – El Regimiento de Granaderos a Caballo en tiempos de la emancipación hispanoamericana 1812 – 1826. La Columna de José Borotti, TV Mundus.

Fletcher, J. (2005). Liberators! Volume 1: The War in the South. Grenadier Productions.

Levene, R. (1947). “Historia de la Nacion Argentina”.

Luqui-Lagleyze, J. M. (1997). “Historia y Campañas del Ejercito Realista”. Instituto Nacional Sanmartiniano.

Pedrazzoli, F. D. (2009). Viluma 1815: The revolution beheaded. Madrid, Spain: Regimentos de America.

Pedrazzoli, F. D. (2011). Pezuela’s Army Uniforms: Infantry – Upper Peru 1813-15. Madrid, Spain: Regimentos de America.

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