Portuguese Equipment in the Colonial War

The Portuguese used a variety of equipment, both foreign and local made, during the Portuguese Colonial War.

Details from Abbott & Rodrigues, 1998; Humbaraci & Muchnik, 1972; Minter, 1972. Also added separate pages on Vehicles of the Portuguese Armed Forces and Foreign Equipment used by Portugual 1950 to 2009.

Portuguese Model Numbers

The last three digits of the Portuguese model numbers were the year of adoption, e.g. the m/961 Walther was adopted in 1961 (Abbott & Rodrigues, 1998).

Portuguese Colour Scheme

All Portuguese military vehicles and guns were painted a plain olive green (Abbott & Rodrigues, 1998).

Pistol

  • m/943 9mm Parabellum, i.e. German Luger
  • m/961 Walther

Rifle

  • m/937 7.9mm Mauser, i.e. German Kar 98k
  • m/961 7.62mm G-3. West German made. This was the standard infantry rifle of the war.
    g3
  • m/962 7.6mm FN/FAL. Portugal purchased large quantities to supplement
    the G3 however it latter it became ‘limited standard’.
    fal
  • m/953 Energa rifle grenades
  • 7.92mm AR-10. Dutch made. Portugal purchased a consignment in 1959-60. Most went to the airforce (paratroops and Air Police)
    ar10

Sub-machine guns

  • m/942 9mm Steyr. Austrian.
  • m/948 9mm FBP. The only Portuguese designed weapon.
    fbp
  • m/961 9mm Vigneron. Belgium made.
  • m/961 9mm UZI. Produced in West Germany.
    uzi

Machine guns

  • m/938 7.92mm Dreyse. Squad support weapon. A WWI vintage German weapon; Known as the MG13 to
    the Germans.
    MG13 7.92 Dreyse
  • m/944 7.92mm MG42. Company heavy weapon. Equipped for sustained fire.
  • m/938 7.92mm Breda. Battalion heavy weapon.
  • m/962 7.92mm MG42-59. Replaced all of the above. The Germans designated this the MG3.

    MG42-59
  • m/951 12.7mm (0.5in) Browning. For AA defence at regimental level and above.
  • m/968 7.92mm HK21. Based on G3 rifle.
  • Madsen Light Machine Gun (Wikipedia: Madsen Machine Gun)

Mortars

  • m/952 60mm mortar. US M2. Platoon support weapon.
  • m/937 8cm mortar. French Brandt 81mm. Company heavy weapon.
  • m/951 107mm mortar. US M2 107mm. Regimental heavy mortar company.

Bazookas (Lança Granadas Fogute) and Recoilless Rifles

37mm Rocket Launcher for Ground Troops (Lança Foguetes de 37mm para Tropas Terrestres)

In 1962 Cesare Dante Vacchi, an Italian Journalist accompanying Cazadore Battalion 280 (Batalhão de Caçadores 280)
in northern Angola, improvised a
launcher to fire a 37mm SNEB aircraft rockets (Operational: Lança-Foguetes De 37mm Para Tropas Terrestres).
The experiment was successful and the Portuguese began to manufacture a
variant of Vacchi’s prototype. It was a much lighter alternative to the
US bazooka and became very popular.

BCP 21 in Angola adopted the SNEB rocket launcher in 1965 (Spencer & Machado, 1992). The paratroopers in Mozambique (BCP 31 and 32) began to adopt the SNEB launcher in 1967. BCP 12 in Guinea-Bissau also got them but not sure when.

m/955 60mm bazooka

m/952 89mm bazooka

probably the tthe 3.5″ US M20 “Super” Bazooka

The paratroopers were also issued with the US 3.5″ Bazooka – and hated it (Spencer & Machado, 1992). They considered both the weapon and its ammunition too cumbersome for use in Africa.

57mm Recoilless Rifle

(from rifle company of original order of battle. I’m guessing this was the US M18)

75mm Recoilless Rifle

(from heavy weapons company of original order of battle. I’m guessing this was the US M20)

106mm Recoilless Rifle

(from heavy weapons company of original order of battle. I’m guessing this was the US M40)

Field guns

  • US M101A1 105mm /li>
  • 75mm Not sure of nationality, perhaps US.
  • 25-pdr. Ex-British.
  • 5.5 in. Ex-British.

Rocket Launcher

  • 8.6 inch M.20. British made.

Tanks

The Portuguese had these tanks but they were probably not deployed to Africa:

  • US M-24 tank
  • US M-47 tank
  • US M-48 tank
  • [Humbaraci & Muchnik (1972) say M-41, M-47 and M4 tanks.]

On the other hand the US built M5A1 was used in Angola.

M5A1 light tanks

Pedro Pato on the New Rhodesian forum says Portugal managed to dispatch three M5A1 light tanks to Angola that operated based in Nambuangongo:

  • ME-07-70 “LICAS”
  • ME-08-77 “GINA”
  • ME-08-98 “MILOCAS”

They were painted in camouflage. Pedro says “Never saw a color photograph these tanks in Angola, I supose would be similar to the one applied to the AMLs with pale green stripes over the OD [Olive Drab] base”.

Scout Cars, Armoured Cars and Armoured Personal Carriers

The Reconnaissance Units used armoured cars. A Reconnaissance Troop would have had a scout car, two armoured cars, an armoured personal carrier (APC) and seven small 4×4 vehicles.

Certain makes and models of armoured cars and APCs were used in combination. As far as I can figure out:

The Dingo filled the scout car role. I’m not sure about the Ferret. This may have been used as a scout car as well.

Daimler dingo scout cars

The Dingo was a WW2 vintage scout car used by the Portuguese.

Some Daimler dingo scout cars had a top-heavy octagonal turret added. Designated by the Portuguese as the Auto-Metralhadora-Daimler 4×4 Mod.F/64.

I think the Dingo entries from Vehicles of the Portuguese Armed Forces are:

  • Blindado Recon. 3 ton. Daimler Mk. IIIA D 4×4 m/1963 100
  • Blindado Recon. 3 ton. Daimler Mk. IIIB D 4×4 m/1963 100

According to Wikipedia: Daimler Dingo the Mk III had a waterproof engine and no roof.

Ferret II Armoured Car

Abbott & Rodrigues (1998) mentions Ferret’s in Portuguese service and have a photo of two Portuguese Ferrets (p. 11). I asked Peter Abbott (personal conversation) which version the Portuguese had and he said … “I can confirm the Ferret II, and I would be very surprised if there weren’t some Ferret I’s as well”. As it happens the Ferrets in the photo in Peter’s book have the turret of the Ferret II (Wikipedia: Ferret Armoured Car).

Note: The Ferret was referred to both an armoured car and a scout car (Wikipedia: Ferret Armoured Car).

The entry from Vehicles of the Portuguese Armed Forces is:

  • Blindado Recon. 4 ½ ton. Ferret Mk. 2 D 4×4 m/1979 32

I can’t explained the m/1979. 1979 seems quite late for the Ferret as it was developed in the 1950s and Abbott & Rodrigues (1998) has them serving during the Portuguese Colonial War.

‘Fox’ Humber Mk IV Armoured Car

A WW2 vintage armoured car produced in Canada as the Fox GMC and in Britain as the Humber Mk IV ((Wikipedia: Humber Armoured Car, Wikipedia: Fox Armoured Car).

According to Carlos Marighela on the Lead Adventure Forum: 28mm African Wars Portuguese

The Portuguese used the GMC Fox in Africa, which is basically a modified Humber IV manufactured in Canada. The main difference was the fitting of a .50 cal machinegun vice the 37mm gun, apart from that they are almost identical in appearance externally at least. These saw service in Guinea and Mozambique as part of the recce squadrons. They were progressively replaced by Panhard AML-60s from the mid 1960s on.

Wikipedia: Fox Armoured Car confirms that the main armament of the Fox was the .50 cal machinegun in comparison to the 37mm of the Humber Mk IV (Wikipedia: Humber Armoured Car).

The entries from Vehicles of the Portuguese Armed Forces are:

  • Blindado Recon. 7-8 ton. GM Fox Mk. I D 4×4 m/1957 100
  • Blindado Recon. 7-8 ton. Humber Mk. IV D 4×4 3,7 cm m/1943 100

US M-3 Half-track (APC)

Another WW2 vintage vehicle. Might have been rare given the scarcity of photos.

Panhard EBR-75 Armoured Car

Panhard EBR-75. L/48 75mm (Same as the French/German Panthers); Co-axial: 7.5mm MG; Driver: 7.5mm MG; Co-Driver: 7.5mm; Commander Hatch: 7.5mm MG (Optional)

According to Carlos Marighela on the Lead Adventure Forum: 28mm African Wars Portuguese

In Angola there the 1st Cavalry Group, the Dragões de Angola used these heavy French cars. These were only used in Angola. The version used was the one with the big FL-10 turret. They were found to have significant limitations in terms of off road mobility in part die to the length of the 75 mm gun barrel (basically a modified version of the Panther tank’s main armament). They were mostly employed for convoy escort as a result.

Venter (1969) has photos of a Portuguese convoy in Angola that has two EBR-75s and an EBR-VTT. The captions call the EBR-75s “tanks” but obviously they’re not.

The entry from Vehicles of the Portuguese Armed Forces is:

  • Blindado Recon. Panhard EBR75 15 ton. 8X8 7,5 cm m/1959 100

Panhard EBR-VTT (APC)

Panhard EBR-VTT. Engin Blindé de Reconnaissance – véhicule de transport de troupe. From what I can tell Portugal was the only recipient of this variant of the EBR (Wikipedia (Polish): Panhard EBR). 28 of these were produced in 1956. 13 tons. Carried 12 soldiers. Arms were three 7.5 machine guns.

The EBR-VTT were brigaded with the Panhard EBR-75 in reconnaissance troops (Abbott & Rodrigues, 1998). Venter (1969) has photos of a convoy in Angola that has two EBR-75s and an EBR-VTT.

The entry from Vehicles of the Portuguese Armed Forces is:

  • Blindado Transp. Pessoal Panhard ETT 13 ton. 8X8 m/1959 28

Panhard AML-60/90 Armoured Car

Some confusion about whether the Portuguese had the Panhard AML-60 or the AML-90. On balance I think it was the AML-60 and no AML-90s were in service.

Army Guide: AML say Portugal got 40. The entry from Vehicles of the Portuguese Armed Forces is:

  • (50) AML-60/90 Armoured car (1965) 1966-1968 (50) AML-60 and possibly AML-90 version

Abbott & Rodrigues (1998) say the Portuguese had the AML-90 but Nuno Peiro challenged this via email and Peter Abbott backtracked when we discussed it via email. He’d assumed a Panhard AML was the AML-90. When he looked at his source material the evidence was for the AML-60 with the 60mm mortar in a smaller turret.

According to Carlos Marighela on the Lead Adventure Forum: 28mm African Wars Portuguese

[The AML-60] progressively replaced the Foxes in service from about 1967 onwards (1970 on in Mozambique) and I believe they popped up in all theatres.

The entry from Vehicles of the Portuguese Armed Forces is:

  • Blindado Recon Panhard AML- HE60-7 4,8 ton. 6 cm 4X4 m/1965 63 Ficha do Exercito

Abbott & Rodrigues (1998) mention an Panhard AML as scout car but I’m not sure what this was. Might be a typo or just loose language and they meant armoured car.

Chaimite Armoured Car and APC

‘Chaimite’ was a locally made version of the US ‘Commando’ (Wikipedia: Bravia Chaimite). It served in all theatres of the Portuguese Colonial War from 1967 to 1974, then through to the present. The main difference commando was the slanting plane on the back wall.

Apparently three versions were used in the Colonial War:

  • APC with no turret and roof mounted machine gun
  • APC with small turrent with machine guns
  • Armoured Car with big turret and big gun (perhaps from 1972)

According to Carlos Marighela on the Lead Adventure Forum: 28mm African Wars Portuguese

In the mid 1960s the Portuguese developed a wheeled APC of their own, the Chaimite, based on the Cadillac-Gage ‘Commando’. Visually the look very similar, save for the rear of the vehicle, which is a an inclined plane on the Chaimite. These were used to accompany the AML-60s in cav squadrons. I’ve seen photos of both the turreted version (identical to the Cadillac-Gage T-50 turret) and the open top version with a pedestal mounted MG in service in Africa. These came in around 1970 and saw service in Guinea and Mozambique.

The entries from Vehicles of the Portuguese Armed Forces is:

  • Blindado Transp. Pessoal 7 ton. Bravia Chaimite V200 D 4×4 m/1967 Ficha do Exercito
  • Blindado Lança Misseis SS11B1 7 ton. Bravia Chaimite V200 D 4×4 m/1967 Ficha do Exercito
  • Blindado Porta Morteiro 7 ton. Bravia Chaimite V200 D 4×4 81 mm m/1967/87 Ficha do Exercito
  • Blindado Transp. Pessoal 7 ton. Bravia Chaimite V200 D 4×4 m/1967/87 (c/metr. 12,7) Ficha do Exercito

All are V200 which is the first version and nominally an APC. I find mention of a mortar version interesting.

For some photos of Chaimite in operation have a look at Luís Graça & Camaradas da Guiné: Guiné 63/74 – P7047: Em busca de… (145): Informações sobre a viatura blindada Chaimite e o seu comportamento no CTIG (Juvenal Amado / Pedro Monteiro).

and another photo of the gun version at Luís Graça & Camaradas da Guiné: Guiné 63/74 – P9216: O nosso fad…ário (8): O Fado BART 2857: Parte II: a Cavalaria em Piche… (José Luís Tavares / Manuel Mata)

Soft skin vehicles

Jeep

The Portuguese used Jeeps (Abbott & Rodrigues, 1998).

The entries from Vehicles of the Portuguese Armed Forces are:

  • Transporte Geral 3/4 ton. Kaiser Jeep D 4×4 CJ6 m/1969 ?
  • Transporte Geral ¼ ton. M606 (Kaiser Jeep CJ3B) 4×4 m/1955
  • Transporte Geral ¼ ton. M606A2 (Kaiser Jeep CJ5M) 4×4 m/
  • Ambulância 1 ¼ ton. M725 (Kaiser Jeep) 4×4 m/ ???
  • Transporte Geral 2 ½ ton. M35A2 (Kaiser Jeep) D 6×6 m/
  • Transporte Geral Willys Jeep 3/4 ton. 4×4 m/1962
  • Transporte Geral Willys-Overland 3/4 ton. 4×4 m/1962
  • Transportes Gerais Willys CJ5 1/4 ton. 4×4 m/1957
  • Transporte Geral ¼ ton. M38A1 (Willys MD) D 4×4 m/1955
  • Transporte Geral ¼ ton. Willys MD D 4×4 m/1944 ? 1980
  • Transporte Geral ¼ ton. Willys CJ2 D 4×4 m/1948
  • Transporte Geral ¼ ton. Willys CJ3A D 4×4 m/1949
  • Transporte Geral Willys-Overland 3/4 ton. 4×4 m/1954
  • Transporte Geral ¼ ton. Willys CJ3B D 4×4 m/1955
  • Transporte Geral ¼ ton. Willys CJ6 D 4×4 m/1969

I find it interesting that the listings are for both Kaiser and Willys jeeps. It seems Willys and Kaiser merged in 1953 (Wikipedia: Jeep; Wikipedia: Kaiser Jeeps) but the models above, for the Willys jeeps, are on either side of the 1953 divide.

Dodge 3/4 ton 4×4 truck

The Portuguese used Dodge 3/4 ton 4×4 trucks (Abbott & Rodrigues, 1998)

The entries from Vehicles of the Portuguese Armed Forces are:

  • Transporte Geral Dodge ¾ ton. D3/4APT T236 D 4×4 m/
  • Transporte Geral 1 ton. Dodge T116 D 4×2 Furgão m/
  • Transporte Geral Dodge 0,5 ton. T207 – WC3 D 4×4 m/
  • Transmissões ½ ton. Dodge T207-WC8 D 4×4 m/
  • Transporte Geral ¾ ton. Dodge T214 – WC51 D 4×4 m/1948-50 cx. aberta s/guincho
  • Transporte Geral ¾ ton. Dodge T214 – WC52 D 4×4 m/1948 cx. aberta c/guincho
  • Ambulância ¾ ton. Dodge T214 – WC54 D 4X4 m/
  • Posto comando ¾ ton. Dodge T214 – WC56 TP3 D 4X4 m/1948 s/guincho ???
  • Posto comando ¾ ton. Dodge T214 – WC56 TP3 D 4X4 m/1948 c/guincho
  • Ambulância ¾ ton. Dodge T214 – WC64 D 4X4 m/
  • Ambulância ½ ton. Dodge T215 – WC27 D 4X4 m/
  • Ambulância ¾ ton. Dodge Power Wagon D 4X4 m/1954
  • Transporte Geral ½ ton. Dodge T215 – WC42 D 4×4 m/
  • Transporte Geral 1 ½ ton. Dodge T223 – WC62 D 6X6 m/
  • Ligeiro Passageiros 3 ton. Dodge VK-62B D 4X2 m/

2.5 ton GMC 6×6 truck

The Portuguese used 2.5 ton GMC 6×6 trucks (Abbott & Rodrigues, 1998).

The entries from Vehicles of the Portuguese Armed Forces are:

  • Cisterna Água 700 galões 2 ½ ton. GMC CCKW-353-12CC D 6X6 m/ ???
  • Transporte Geral 2 ½ ton. GMC CCKW-353 D 6X6 m/
  • Transporte Geral 2 ½ ton. GMC CCKW-352-12CI D 6X6 m/ ???
  • Transmissões 2 ½ ton. GMC CCKW-353 D 6X6 m/
  • Transporte Geral 2 ½ ton. GMC CCKW-353 D 6X6 (Furgão) m/
  • Anfibio 2 ½ ton. GMC DUKW-354 “Duck” D 6×6 m/

BMW motorcycle

The Portuguese used BMW motorcycles (Abbott & Rodrigues, 1998)

Austin Gipsies

The Portuguese acquired 200 Austin ‘Gppsies’ in 1965 (Abbott & Rodrigues, 1998). According to Wikipedia: Austin Gipsy the company spelt gypsy with an “i”. The Austin Gipsy was, more or less, like an landrover.

The entries from Vehicles of the Portuguese Armed Forces for 1965 are:

  • Transporte Geral ¼ ton. Austin D 4×4 G4M10 “Gipsy” Series IV m/1965 ?
  • Transporte Geral 3/4 ton. Austin D 4×4 G4M15 “Gypsy” m/1965.

Other entries are:

  • Transporte Geral ¼ ton. Austin D 4×4 “Gipsy” Series I m/ ?
  • Ligeiro ¼ ton. Austin D 4×2 “Mini-Moke” m/ ?
  • Transporte Geral Austin D 4×2 10HP G/YG m/ ?
  • Ligeiro Austin D 4×2 TP2 8HP m/ ?
  • Ambulância 4M Austin D 4×2 K2/Y m/ ?
  • Transporte Geral 3 ton. Austin D 4×2 K3 m/ ?
  • Transporte Geral 1,5 ton. (30 cwt) Austin D 4×2 K30 m/ ?
  • Transporte Geral Austin D 4×4 K5/YW m/ ?
  • Transporte Geral 3 ton. Austin D 4×4 K5/ZD/ZK/ZT m/ ?
  • Transporte Geral 1 ton. Austin D 4×4 FV16012 m/ ?
  • Guindaste 3 ton. Austin D 6×4 K6 (Coles EMA Mk. VI) m/ ?
  • Transporte Geral Austin-Morris serie II m/ ?

Landrovers

Used by the Portuguese from the mid-1960s (Abbott & Rodrigues, 1998).

The entries from Vehicles of the Portuguese Armed Forces are:

  • Transporte Geral ¼ ton. Land-Rover D 4×4 Series I m/1949
  • Transporte Geral ¼ ton. Land-Rover D 4×4 Series I m/1954
  • Transporte Geral ¼ ton. Land-Rover D 4×4 Series I Mk.2 m/1957
  • Transporte Geral ¼ ton. Land-Rover D 4×4 Series II m/1958
  • Transporte Geral ¾ ton. Land-Rover D 4×4 Series II m/1958
  • Transporte Geral ¾ ton. Land-Rover D 4×4 Series II TP10 m/1959
  • Transporte Geral ¼ ton. Land-Rover D 4×4 Series III m/1977
  • Transporte Geral ¾ ton. Land-Rover D 4×4 Series III m/1977
  • Ambulância ¾ ton. Land-Rover D 4×4 Series IIA “109” m/ ???
  • Transporte Geral 0,5 ton. Land-Rover D 4×4 Light Vehicle m/ (marinha-fuzos)
  • Transporte Geral Land-Rover Defender 90HT D 4×4 m/1994
  • Transporte Geral Land-Rover Defender 100HT D 4×4 m/1994
  • Transporte Geral Land-Rover Defender 110 D 4×4 m/

Berliet Trucks

From mid-1960s the Portuguese used Berliet trucks (Abbott & Rodrigues, 1998). These were big trucks. They were often equipped as a mine crasher, with bonnet removed and sandbags on the floor.

The entries from Vehicles of the Portuguese Armed Forces are:

  • Transporte Geral 5 ton. Berliet GBC 8 Mk “Gazelle” D 6×6 m/
  • Transporte Geral 4 ton. Berliet GBC 8 KT D 4×4 m/
  • Transporte Geral 6 ton. Berliet GLC 28 D 4×4 m/
  • Transporte Geral 7 ton. Berliet GLR 8 R D 4×2 m/
  • Transporte Geral 9 ton. Berliet/Renault TRM 9000 m/
  • Transporte Geral 4 ton. Berliet TBC 8 KT D 4×4 m/
  • Transporte Geral 4 ton. Berliet/Tramagal GBC 8 KT D 4×4 m/1964
  • Transporte Geral 4 ton. Berliet/Tramagal GBC 8 KT D 6×6 m/1966
  • Transporte Geral 2,5 ton. Berliet/Tramagal GBA MT D 6×6 m/1968
  • Auto Metralhadora 10 ton. Berliet D 6×6 UDB4 m/1932 2
  • Auto Metralhadora Berliet D 4×4 VUDB m/ >1
  • Transporte Geral 2 ½ ton. Berliet-Tramagal GBA MT D 6×6 m/

Unimog 4×4 utility truck

from mid-1960s

The entries from Vehicles of the Portuguese Armed Forces are:

  • Transporte Geral Unimog 401/411.115 m/
  • Transporte Geral 1 ton. Unimog D 4×4 U34/411 m/
  • Transporte Geral 1 ½ ton. Unimog D 4×4 S404 m/
  • Transporte Geral 1 ½ ton. Unimog D 4×4 S404.114 m/1969
  • Ambulância Unimog S404 c/cabine aberta 4×4 m/1944
  • Transporte Geral Unimog 1100 L m/1989
  • Transporte Geral Unimog 1150 L m/1991
  • Transporte Geral Unimog 1750 L m/1991
  • Transporte Geral 2 ton. 9 Unimog D 4×4 U1300 m/1979-84 s/guincho Ficha do Exercito

Zorras

Heavily armoured vehicle design to withstand blasts and ambushes (Morris, 1974). Venter (1974b) describes them in more detail:

armoured mine detector which was used on the railway line between Moatize and the coast, as well as on the Malawi route [all in Mozambique]. Armed with gunports and machine-gun brackets these cumbersome devices, which are named “Zorras” by security forces, are protected by a covering of thick steel.

Each is manned by seven solders who each day carefully inspect the track and ballast for signs of disturbance and the embankment for concealed wires. The measure has drastically reduced sabotage attempts on the railway.

Now days ‘Zorras’ refers to a heavy transport trailer (Wikipedia: Zorras (transportes) and this may have been the meaning in the 1960-70s as well (Thanks to Nuno Pereiro for pointing out the wikipedia site).

Fixed Wing Combat Aircraft (150)

Abbott and Rodrigues (1998) list:

  • About 150 T-6G Texan trainers equipped for counter-insurgency and used for ‘armed reconnaissance’. Supplied by the US.
  • 30 x Cessna T-37C trainers in Jan 1963 supplied by the US.
  • 50 x F-84G Thunderjet fighters. Supplied by the US.
  • 50 x F-86F Sabrejet fighters for ‘offensive support’ of ground troops. Supplied by the US.
  • 18 x Lockheed PV-2 Harpoon Bombers for ‘offensive support’ of ground troops. Supplied by the US.
  • 40 or 65 x Fiat G-91R fighter-bombers in 1966 supplied by West Germany (Venter, 1974b, says 40)
  • 7 or 20 x B-26 Bombers. Supplied by the US.
  • 12 x P-2V Neptune Bombers. Supplied by the US.

Transport Aircraft (66)

Abbott and Rodrigues (1998) list:

  • 4 x Holste Broussard supplied by France
  • A few Junkers Ju 52 supplied by France in 1960-61
  • 12 x 2501D Noratlas
  • 6 x 2502 Noratlas supplied by France
  • C-45. Supplied by the US.
  • C-47. Supplied by the US.
  • DC-6. Supplied by the US.
  • Boeing 707 in 1971 supplied by the US

Aircraft in Mozambique

Venter (1974b) mentions these in 1973 in Mozambique:

  • 5 Nord-Atlas
  • 5 x DC3 transports
  • 15 x Harvard T6 prop-driven fighter-bombers
  • 8 x Fiat jets
  • 14 Alouette helicopters
  • Undetermined number of spotter planes

Light Army Cooperation Aircraft

Abbott and Rodrigues (1998) list:

  • 150 x Auster D.5/160 utility light aircraft supplied by Britain.
  • 110 x Dornier DO-27. A light counter-insurgency aircraft used for liaison and ground operations. West Germany supplied
“A one-minute flight in a helicopter equaled about one hour on foot in the jungle” (Cann, 1997, p. 130).

Helicopters (85)

Saro Skeeter supplied by West Germany

SA-330 Puma

Abbott and Rodrigues (1998) list:

  • SA-330 Puma supplied by France

Venter (1974b) lists:

  • 12 x Puma SA-330s

Sud Aviation Alouette II and III

Abbott and Rodrigues (1998) list:

  • About 80 x Sud Aviation Alouette III with AS.11 and AS.12 air-to-surface missiles supplied by France
  • About 30 x Sud Aviation Alouette II with rockets supplied by France.

Wikipedia: Aerospatiale Alouette III

  • Production of the SA 316A (SE 3160) began in 1961 and remained in production until 1968, when it was replaced by the SA 316B

According to Cassius on the Foreign Equipment use in Portugal 1950 to 2009:

  • 80 SA-316B Alouette-3 Light helicopter 1962 1963-1970 (80)
  • 99 SA-316B Alouette-3 Light helicopter (1970) 1970-1975 (99)

For 1973 Venter (1974b) mentions:

  • 100 Alouette II/IIIs

Ships and Boats

Abbott and Rodrigues (1998) list:

  • Seven Frigates modified to carry Marine landing parties
  • Three ex-British LCTs
  • 12 smaller landing craft
  • Six corvettes
  • 10 ‘Cacine’ patrol boats

Venter (1974b) lists:

  • 25 coastal patrol vessels (under 100 tons)
  • 24 coastal launches (under 100 tons)

References

Abbott, P. and Rodrigues, M. (1998). Modern African Wars 2: Angola and Mozambique 1961-74. Osprey.

Cann, J. P. (1997). Counterinsurgency in Africa: The Portuguese way of war 1961-1974. Hailer.

Clarke, R. (2008). B’Maso! The winds of change wars in Africa. Two Fat Lardies.

Davidson, B. (1981). The People’s Cause: A history of Guerillas in Africa. Longman.

Humbaraci, A. and Muchnik, N. (1974). Portugal’s African Wars: Angola, Guinea Bissao, Mozambique. The Third Press.

Lança-Foguetes De 37mm Para Tropas Terrestres

Minter, W. (1972). Portuguese Africa and the West. NY: Monthly Review Press.

Venter, A. J. (1969). The Terror Fighters: A profile of Guerrilla warfare in Southern Africa. Cape Town: Purnell.

Venter, A. J. (1974b). The Zambesi Salient: Conflict in Southern Africa. Cape Town: Howard Timmins.

Wikipedia: Comandos

Wikipedia (Polish): Panhard EBR

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